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Computers and Games for Mental Health and Well Being


Computers and Games for Mental Health and Well Being
  • Author : Yasser Khazaal
  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2018-07-12
  • ISBN : 9782889454969
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Advances in Virtual Agents and Affective Computing for the Understanding and Remediation of Social Cognitive Disorders


Advances in Virtual Agents and Affective Computing for the Understanding and Remediation of Social Cognitive Disorders
  • Author : Eric Brunet-Gouet
  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2016-03-02
  • ISBN : 9782889197873
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Advances in modern sciences occur thanks to within-fields discoveries as well as confrontation of concepts and methods from separated, sometimes distant, domains of knowledge. For instance, the fields of psychology and psychopathology benefited from accumulated contributions from cognitive neurosciences, which, in turn, received insights from molecular chemistry, cellular biology, physics (neuroimaging), statistics and computer sciences (data processing), etc. From the results of these researches, one can argue that among the numerous cognitive phenomena supposedly involved in the emergence the human intelligence and organized behavior, some of them are specific to the social nature of our phylogenetic order. Scientific reductionism allowed to divide the social cognitive system into several components, i.e. emotion processing and regulation, mental state inference (theory of mind), agency, etc. New paradigms were progressively designed to investigate these processes within highly-controlled laboratory settings. Moreover, the related constructs were successful at better understanding psychopathological conditions such as autism and schizophrenia, with partial relationships with illness outcomes. Here, we would like to outline the parallel development of concepts in social neurosciences and in other domains such as computer science, affective computing, virtual reality development, and even hardware technologies. While several researchers in neurosciences pointed out the necessity to consider naturalistic social cognition (Zaki and Ochsner, Ann N Y Acad Sci 1167, 16-30, 2009), the second person perspective (Schilbach et al., Behav Brain Sci 36(4), 393-414, 2013) and reciprocity (de Bruin et al., Front Hum Neurosci 6, 151, 2012), both computer and software developments allowed more and more realistic real-time models of our environment and of virtual humans capable of some interaction with users. As noted at the very beginning of this editorial, a new convergence between scientific disciplines might occur from which it is tricky to predict the outcomes in terms of new concepts, methods and uses. Although this convergence is motivated by the intuition that it fits well ongoing societal changes (increasing social demands on computer technologies, augmenting funding), it comes with several difficulties for which the current Frontiers in’ topic strives to bring some positive answers, and to provide both theoretical arguments and experimental examples. The first issue is about concepts and vocabulary as the contributions described in the following are authored by neuroscientists, computer scientists, psychopathologists, etc. A special attention was given during the reviewing process to stay as close as possible to the publication standards in psychological and health sciences, and to avoid purely technical descriptions. The second problem concerns methods: more complex computerized interaction models results in unpredictable and poorly controlled experiments. In other words, the assets of naturalistic paradigms may be alleviated by the difficulty to match results between subjects, populations, conditions. Of course, this practical question is extremely important for investigating pathologies that are associated with profoundly divergent behavioral patterns. Some of the contributions of this topic provide description of strategies that allowed to solve these difficulties, at least partially. The last issue is about heterogeneity of the objectives of the researches presented here. While selection criteria focused on the use of innovative technologies to assess or improve social cognition, the fields of application of this approach were quite unexpected. In an attempt to organize the contributions, three directions of research can be identified: 1) how innovation in methods might improve understanding and assessment of social cognition disorders or pathology? 2) within the framework of cognitive behavioral psychotherapies (CBT), how should we consider the use of virtual reality or augmented reality? 3) which are the benefits of these techniques for investigating severe mental disorders (schizophrenia or autism) and performing cognitive training? The first challenging question is insightfully raised in the contribution of Timmermans and Schilbach (2014) giving orientations for investigating alterations of social interaction in psychiatric disorders by the use of dual interactive eye tracking with virtual anthropomorphic avatars. Joyal, Jacob and collaborators (2014) bring concurrent and construct validities of a newly developed set of virtual faces expressing six fundamental emotions. The relevance of virtual reality was exemplified with two contributions focusing on anxiety related phenomena. Jackson et al. (2015) describe a new environment allowing to investigate empathy for dynamic FACS-coded facial expressions including pain. Based on a systematic investigation of the impact of social stimuli modalities (visual, auditory), Ruch and collaborators are able to characterize the specificity of the interpretation of laughter in people with gelotophobia (2014). On the issue of social anxiety, Aymerich-Franch et al. (2014) presented two studies in which public speaking anxiety has been correlated with avatars’ similarity of participants’ self-representations. The second issue focuses on how advances in virtual reality may benefit to cognitive and behavioral therapies in psychiatry. These interventions share a common framework that articulates thoughts, feelings or emotions and behaviors and proposes gradual modification of each of these levels thanks to thought and schema analysis, stress reduction procedures, etc. They were observed to be somehow useful for the treatment of depression, stress disorders, phobias, and are gaining some authority in personality disorders and addictions. The main asset of new technologies is the possibility to control the characteristics of symptom-eliciting stimuli/situations, and more precisely the degree to which immersion is enforced. For example, Baus and Bouchard (2014) provide a review on the extension of virtual reality exposure-based therapy toward recently described augmented reality exposure-based therapy in individuals with phobias. Concerning substance dependence disorders, Hone-Blanchet et collaborators (2014) present another review on how virtual reality can be an asset for both therapy and craving assessment stressing out the possibilities to simulate social interactions associated with drug seeking behaviors and even peers’ pressure to consume. The last issue this Frontiers’ topic deals with encompasses the questions raised by social cognitive training or remediation in severe and chronic mental disorders (autistic disorders, schizophrenia). Here, therapies are based on drill and practice or strategy shaping procedures, and, most of the time, share an errorless learning of repeated cognitive challenges. Computerized methods were early proposed for that they do, effortlessly and with limited costs, repetitive stimulations. While, repetition was incompatible with realism in the social cognitive domain, recent advances provide both immersion and full control over stimuli. Georgescu and al. (2014) exhaustively reviews the use of virtual

Les antipsychotiques Les m dicaments psychotropes


Les antipsychotiques    Les m  dicaments psychotropes
  • Author : THOMAS Pierre
  • Publisher : Lavoisier
  • Release : 2013-12-16
  • ISBN : 9782257705419
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Le développement des antipsychotiques a marqué une nouvelle ère thérapeutique après la découverte du premier neuroleptique dans les années 1950. Leur principale indication demeure les symptômes psychotiques, même s’ils offrent également de nouvelles perspectives de traitement pour certains troubles de la personnalité ou du comportement. Cependant, l’image négative qu’ont longtemps eue les neuroleptiques n’est pas totalement effacée, et cet ouvrage a pour but d’apporter toutes les informations nécessaires aux prescripteurs pour rationaliser leur choix thérapeutique et favoriser le meilleur usage possible des antipsychotiques : - les bases fondamentales : pharmacologie, pharmacogénétique, effets métaboliques et cognitifs ; - les aspects cliniques : épisodes aigus de schizophrénie, troubles bipolaires, troubles affectifs non bipolaires, TOC et affections neurologiques, tolérance des antipsychotiques et molécules à action prolongée ; - les spécificités liées aux populations : enfants et adolescents, période périnatale, personnes âgées, situations d’urgence ; - le bon usage et l’éducation thérapeutique du patient. Réunissant une quarantaine de spécialistes reconnus, riche d’une cinquantaine de tableaux et schémas explicatifs et d’un index détaillé, cet ouvrage est la référence indispensable pour tous les praticiens devant prescrire des antipsychotiques.

PASCAL explore


PASCAL explore
  • Author :
  • Publisher :
  • Release : 1989
  • ISBN : UCAL:C3049917
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Penser l esprit


Penser l esprit
  • Author : Vincent Rialle
  • Publisher : Presses Universitaires de Grenoble
  • Release : 1996
  • ISBN : UCAL:B5436990
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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