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Evolution by Tumor Neofunctionalization


Evolution by Tumor Neofunctionalization
  • Author : Andrei P. Kozlov
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2014-02-15
  • ISBN : 9780128004982
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Evolution by Tumor Neofunctionalization explores the possibility of the positive role of tumors in evolution of multicellular organisms. This unique perspective goes beyond recent publications on how evolution may influence tumors, to consider the possible role of tumors in evolution. Widespread in nature tumors represent a much broader category than malignant tumors only. The majority of tumors in humans and other animals may never undergo malignant transformation. Tumors may differentiate with the loss of malignancy, and malignant tumors may spontaneously regress. Cellular oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes play roles in normal development. Many features of tumors could be used in evolution, and there are examples of tumors that have played a role in evolution. This book will stimulate thinking on this topic by specialists in the fields of evolutionary biology, oncology, molecular biology, molecular evolution, embryology, evo-devo, tumor immunology, pathology and clinical oncology. Covers the role that tumors might play in evolution. Provides multidisciplinary approach that will appeal to a wide circle of professionals in the fields of evolutionary biology, oncology, molecular biology, and more

Macroevolution


Macroevolution
  • Author : Emanuele Serrelli
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2015-02-13
  • ISBN : 9783319150451
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book is divided in two parts, the first of which shows how, beyond paleontology and systematics, macroevolutionary theories apply key insights from ecology and biogeography, developmental biology, biophysics, molecular phylogenetics and even the sociocultural sciences to explain evolution in deep time. In the second part, the phenomenon of macroevolution is examined with the help of real life-history case studies on the evolution of eukaryotic sex, the formation of anatomical form and body-plans, extinction and speciation events of marine invertebrates, hominin evolution and species conservation ethics. The book brings together leading experts, who explain pivotal concepts such as Punctuated Equilibria, Stasis, Developmental Constraints, Adaptive Radiations, Habitat Tracking, Turnovers, (Mass) Extinctions, Species Sorting, Major Transitions, Trends and Hierarchies – key premises that allow macroevolutionary epistemic frameworks to transcend microevolutionary theories that focus on genetic variation, selection, migration and fitness. Along the way, the contributing authors review ongoing debates and current scientific challenges; detail new and fascinating scientific tools and techniques that allow us to cross the classic borders between disciplines; demonstrate how their theories make it possible to extend the Modern Synthesis; present guidelines on how the macroevolutionary field could be further developed; and provide a rich view of just how it was that life evolved across time and space. In short, this book is a must-read for active scholars and because the technical aspects are fully explained, it is also accessible for non-specialists. Understanding evolution requires a solid grasp of above-population phenomena. Species are real biological individuals and abiotic factors impact the future course of evolution. Beyond observation, when the explanation of macroevolution is the goal, we need both evidence and theory that enable us to explain and interpret how life evolves at the grand scale.

Breadmaking


Breadmaking
  • Author : S P Cauvain
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2012-04-25
  • ISBN : 9780857095695
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The first edition of Breadmaking: Improving quality quickly established itself as an essential purchase for baking professionals and researchers in this area. With comprehensively updated and revised coverage, including six new chapters, the second edition helps readers to understand the latest developments in bread making science and practice. The book opens with two introductory chapters providing an overview of the breadmaking process. Part one focuses on the impacts of wheat and flour quality on bread, covering topics such as wheat chemistry, wheat starch structure, grain quality assessment, milling and wheat breeding. Part two covers dough development and bread ingredients, with chapters on dough aeration and rheology, the use of redox agents and enzymes in breadmaking and water control, among other topics. In part three, the focus shifts to bread sensory quality, shelf life and safety. Topics covered include bread aroma, staling and contamination. Finally, part four looks at particular bread products such as high fibre breads, those made from partially baked and frozen dough and those made from non-wheat flours. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, the second edition of Breadmaking: Improving quality is a standard reference for researchers and professionals in the bread industry and all those involved in academic research on breadmaking science and practice. With comprehensively updated and revised coverage, this second edition outlines the latest developments in breadmaking science and practice Covers topics such as wheat chemistry, wheat starch structure, grain quality assessment, milling and wheat breeding Discusses dough development and bread ingredients, with chapters on dough aeration and rheology

Vaccines for Cancer Immunotherapy


Vaccines for Cancer Immunotherapy
  • Author : Nima Rezaei
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2018-10-17
  • ISBN : 9780128140406
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Therapeutic cancer vaccines represent a type of active cancer immunotherapy. Clinicians, scientists, and researchers working on cancer treatment require evidence-based and up-to-date resources relating to therapeutic cancer vaccines. Vaccines for Cancer Immunotherapy provides a reference for cancer treatment for clinicians and presents a well-organized resource for determining high-potential research areas. The book considers that this promising modality can be made more feasible as a treatment for cancer. Chapters cover cancer immunology, general approaches to cancer immunotherapy, vaccines, tumor antigens, the strategy of allogeneic and autologous cancer vaccines, personalized vaccines, whole-tumor antigen vaccines, protein and peptide vaccines, dendritic cell vaccines, genetic vaccines, candidate cancers for vaccination, obstacles to developing therapeutic cancer vaccines, combination therapy, future perspectives and concluding remarks on therapeutic cancer vaccines. Introduces the feasible immunotherapeutic vaccines for patients with different types of cancer Presents the status of past and current vaccines for cancer treatment Considers advantages and disadvantages of different therapeutic cancer vaccines Looks at the combination of vaccines and other modalities, including immunotherapeutic and conventional methods Analyzes obstacles to development of therapeutic cancer vaccines Gives a view on future perspectives in the application of therapeutic cancer vaccines

Evolution Driven by Organismal Behavior


Evolution Driven by Organismal Behavior
  • Author : Rui Diogo
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2017-03-08
  • ISBN : 9783319475813
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book proposes a new way to think about evolution. The author carefully brings together evidence from diverse fields of science. In the process, he bridges the gaps between many different--and usually seen as conflicting--ideas to present one integrative theory named ONCE, which stands for Organic Nonoptimal Constrained Evolution. The author argues that evolution is mainly driven by the behavioral choices and persistence of organisms themselves, in a process in which Darwinian natural selection is mainly a secondary--but still crucial--evolutionary player. Within ONCE, evolution is therefore generally made of mistakes and mismatches and trial-and-error situations, and is not a process where organisms engage in an incessant, suffocating struggle in which they can't thrive if they are not optimally adapted to their habitats and the external environment. Therefore, this unifying view incorporates a more comprehensive view of the diversity and complexity of life by stressing that organisms are not merely passive evolutionary players under the rule of external factors. This insightful and well-reasoned argument is based on numerous fascinating case studies from a wide range of organisms, including bacteria, plants, insects and diverse examples from the evolution of our own species. The book has an appeal to researchers, students, teachers, and those with an interest in the history and philosophy of science, as well as to the broader public, as it brings life back into biology by emphasizing that organisms, including humans, are the key active players in evolution and thus in the future of life on this wonderful planet.