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High Temperature Gas cooled Reactors


High Temperature Gas cooled Reactors
  • Author : Tetsuaki Takeda
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2021-02-24
  • ISBN : 9780128210321
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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High-Temperature Gas Reactors is the fifth volume in the JSME Series on Thermal and Nuclear Power Generation. Series Editor Yasuo Koizumi and his Volume editors Tetsuaki Takeda and Yoshiyuki Inagaki present the latest research on High-Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) development and utilization, beginning with an analysis of the history of HTGRs. A detailed analysis of HTGR design features, including reactor core design, cooling tower design, pressure vessel design, I&C factors and safety design, provides readers with a solid understanding of how to develop efficient and safe HTGR within a nuclear power plant. The authors combine their knowledge to present a guide on the safety of HTGRs throughout the entire reactor system, drawing on their unique experience to pass on lessons learned and best practices to support professionals and researchers in their design and operation of these advanced reactor types. Case studies of critical testing carried out by the authors provide the reader with firsthand information on how to conduct tests safely and effectively and an understanding of which responses are required in unexpected incidents to achieve their research objectives. An analysis of technologies and systems in development and testing stages offer the reader a look to the future of HTGRs and help to direct and inform their further research in heat transfer, fluid-dynamics, fuel options and advanced reactor facility selection. This volume is of interest for nuclear and thermal energy engineers and researchers focusing on HTGRs, HTGR plant designers and operators, regulators, post graduate students of nuclear engineering, national labs, government officials and agencies in power and energy policy and regulations. Written by the leaders and pioneers in nuclear research at the Japanese Society of Mechanical Engineers and draws upon their combined wealth of knowledge and experience Includes real examples and case studies from Japan, the US and Europe to provide a deeper learning opportunity with practical benefits Considers the societal impact and sustainability concerns and goals throughout the discussion Includes safety factors and considerations, as well as unique results from performance testing of HTGR systems.

High Temperature Gas cooled Reactors


High Temperature Gas cooled Reactors
  • Author : Tetsuaki Takeda
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2021-03-12
  • ISBN : 9780128210314
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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High-Temperature Gas Reactors, Volume Five in the JSME Series on Thermal and Nuclear Power Generation, provides a detailed analysis of HTGR design features, including reactor core design, cooling tower design, pressure vessel design, I&C factors and safety design. The book's authors present a guide on the safety of HTGRs throughout the entire reactor system, drawing on their unique experience to pass on lessons learned and best practices for the design and operation of advanced reactor types. Included case studies provide readers with firsthand information on how to safely conduct tests and understand which responses are most appropriate in unexpected incidents.

Modular High temperature Gas cooled Reactor Power Plant


Modular High temperature Gas cooled Reactor Power Plant
  • Author : Kurt Kugeler
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2018-08-25
  • ISBN : 3662577100
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"Modular High-temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Power Plant" introduces the power plants driven by modular high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTR), which are characterized by their inherent safety features and high output temperatures. HTRs have the potential to be adopted near demand side to supply both electricity and process heat, directly replacing conventional fossil fuels. The world is confronted with two dilemmas in the energy sector, namely climate change and energy supply security. HTRs have the potential to significantly alleviate these concerns. This book will provide readers with a thorough understanding of HTRs, their history, principles, and fields of application. The book is intended for researchers and engineers involved with nuclear engineering and energy technology.

Physics of High Temperature Reactors


Physics of High Temperature Reactors
  • Author : Luigi Massimo
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2013-10-22
  • ISBN : 9781483280288
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Physics of High-Temperature Reactors focuses on the physics of high-temperature reactors (HTRs) and covers topics ranging from fuel cycles and refueling strategies to neutron cross-sections, transport and diffusion theory, and resonance absorption. Spectrum calculations and cross-section averaging are also discussed, along with the temperature coefficient and reactor control. Comprised of 16 chapters, this book begins with a general description of the HTR core as well as its performance limitations. The next chapter deals with general considerations about HTR physics, including quantities to be determined and optimized in the design of nuclear reactors. Potential scattering and resonance reactions between neutrons and atomic nuclei are then considered, together with basic aspects of transport and diffusion theory. Subsequent chapters explore methods for solving the diffusion equation; slowing-down and neutron thermalization in graphite; HTR core design, fuel management, and cost calculations; and core dynamics and accident analysis. The final chapter describes the sequence of reactor design calculations. This monograph is written primarily for students of HTR physics who are preparing to enter the field as well as technologists of other disciplines who are working on the system.

Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuel in High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors


Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuel in High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors
  • Author : Cihang Lu
  • Publisher :
  • Release : 2019
  • ISBN : OCLC:1107185246
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Highly innovative nuclear reactor technologies have the potential to meet the global energy demand while reducing carbon emissions. Generation IV reactors, with advances in safety, reliability, sustainability and economic benefits, are currently being investigated. The high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), moderated by graphite and cooled by helium, has the highest technology readiness level compared to the other Generation IV reactor designs.Conventional HTGR fuel consists of TRistructural ISOtropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles embedded in a graphite matrix. Several historic HTGRs fueled with conventional fuel have been constructed and operated, including the Peach Bottom Unit No.1 reactor operated in Pennsylvania and the Fort St. Vrain reactor that was operated in Colorado.The FCM fuel consists of TRistructural ISOtropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles embedded in a silicon carbide (SiC) matrix. Compared to the conventional HTGR fuel, the FCM fuel could potentially enhance the safety of the reactor due to the numerous advantages provided by the SiC matrix. The FCM fuel features enhanced ability to retain fission products. The FCM fuel exhibits a greater stability under irradiation and less swelling after irradiation. Moreover, the FCM fuel has better mechanical characteristics and would be less sensitive to physical disturbances. The FCM fuel has higher oxidation resistance and would suffer less damage in air-ingress accidents. The SiC matrix may also increase the proliferation resistance of the FCM fuel.However, due to the replacement of the graphite matrix in the conventional HTGR fuel, the FCM fuel hardens the neutron spectrum in the reactor core. This may further cause economic penalties of an FCM-fueled HTGR as well as a higher fuel temperature which jeopardizes the core safety.This dissertation proved the viability of FCM-fueled HTGRs by answering the following six questions based on analysis of experimental data as well as neutronics and thermal-hydraulics numerical calculations:(1) What are the key changes in fuel cycle performance and fuel cost of HTGRs with the FCM fuel?(2) What is the potential impact of the FCM fuel on reactor performance and safety characteristics of HTGRs?(3) How does the FCM fuel impact anticipated transients and design-basis accidents?(4) What are the most important parameters for each of the design-basis accidents and their sensitivities to the maximum fuel temperature?(5) What is the kinetics of the annealing process of neutron-irradiated SiC?(6) Does the irradiation defect annealing process of SiC significantly impact fuel temperature during design-basis accidents?The reference HTGR core configuration considered was the General Atomics designed 350-MWt prismatic mHTGR which has a prismatic block configuration similar to the Fort St. Vrain reactor.In this dissertation, I identified three FCM fuel options which are able to maintain the fuel cycle length of the reference core. However, because of the higher natural resource requirement, the FCM fuel cycle cost could be up to 74% more expensive than the conventional HTGR fuel. The impact of the FCM fuel on the other parameters which are important to the core safety, including decay power, reactivity temperature coefficients and control rod worth, is minor. I investigated three typical design-basis accidents of the HTGRs, including the pressurized loss of forced cooling accident, the depressurized loss of forced cooling accident and the control rod withdrawal accident. The maximum fuel temperature of an FCM-fuel core could be up to 65 K higher than that of the reference core during normal operating conditions, and the peak maximum fuel temperature of an FCM-fuel core could be up to 55 K higher than that of the reference core during those design-basis accidents. I also studied the sensitivity of the maximum fuel temperature to various parameters of interest during different operating conditions and identified the steady-state power distribution to have the largest impact on the peak maximum fuel temperature during the design-basis accidents. By analyzing acquired experimental data, I elucidated information on the kinetics of the SiC annealing process. I further estimated the maximum possible impact of the SiC annealing process on the maximum fuel temperature of FCM-fueled HTGRs during design-basis accidents based on conservative assumptions. The SiC annealing process would at most increase the peak maximum fuel temperature of an FCM-fueled HTGR by 40 K.According to the calculations conducted, the increase of the maximum fuel temperature caused by the use of the FCM fuel in HTGRs would not exceed 100 K which is minor compared to the maximum fuel temperature of around 1200 K in the reference core during normal operating conditions. Therefore, the use of the FCM fuel in HTGRs is viable.Additionally, by comparing calculation results with experimental data, I demonstrated the validity of the system analysis code RELAP5-3D to conduct thermal-hydraulics calculations of transients in HTGRs.