Hydrothermal and Supercritical Water Processes Books

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Hydrothermal and Supercritical Water Processes


Hydrothermal and Supercritical Water Processes
  • Author : Gerd Brunner
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2014-04-04
  • ISBN : 9780444594181
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Hydrothermal and Supercritical Water Processes presents an overview on the properties and applications of water at elevated temperatures and pressures. It combines fundamentals with production process aspects. Water is an extraordinary substance. At elevated temperatures (and pressures) its properties change dramatically due to the modifications of the molecular structure of bulk water that varies from a stable three-dimensional network, formed by hydrogen bonds at low and moderate temperatures, to an assembly of separated polar water molecules at high and supercritical temperatures. With varying pressure and temperature, water is turned from a solvent for ionic species to a solvent for polar and non-polar substances. This variability and an enhanced reactivity of water have led to many practical applications and to even more research activities, related to such areas as energy transfer, extraction of functional molecules, unique chemical reactions, biomass conversion and fuel materials processing, destruction of dangerous compounds and recycling of useful ones, growth of monolithic crystals, and preparation of metallic nanoparticles. This book provides an introduction into the wide range of activities that are possible in aqueous mixtures. It is organized to facilitate understanding of the main features, outlines the main applications, and gives access to further information Summarizes fundamental properties of water for engineering applications Compares process and reactor designs Evaluates processes from thermodynamic, economic, and social impact viewpoints

Biofuels


Biofuels
  • Author : Krzysztof Biernat
  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2015-09-30
  • ISBN : 9789535121770
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The edited volume presents the progress of first and second generation biofuel production technology in selected countries. Possibility of producing alternative fuels containing biocomponents and selected research methods of biofuels exploitation characteristics (also aviation fuels) was characterized. The book shows also some aspects of the environmental impact of the production and biofuels using, and describes perspectives of biofuel production technology development. It provides the review of biorefinery processes with a particular focus on pretreatment methods of selected primary and secondary raw materials. The discussion includes also a possibility of sustainable development of presented advanced biorefinery processes.

Supercritical Water


Supercritical Water
  • Author : Yizhak Marcus
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2012-05-15
  • ISBN : 9781118310274
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Discover the many new and emerging applications of supercritical water as a green solvent Drawing from thousands of original research articles, this book reviews and summarizes what is currently known about the properties and uses of supercritical water. In particular, it focuses on new and emerging applications of supercritical water as a green solvent, including the catalytic conversion of biomass into fuels and the oxidation of hazardous materials. Supercritical Water begins with an introduction that defines supercritical fluids in general. It then defines supercritical water in particular, using the saturation curve to illustrate its relationship to regular water. Following this introduction, the book: Describes the bulk macroscopic properties of supercritical water, using equations of state to explain temperature-pressure-density relationships Examines supercritical water's molecular properties, setting forth the latest experimental data as well as computer simulations that shed new light on structure and dynamics Explores the solubilities of gases, organic substances, salts, and ions in supercritical water in terms of the relevant phase equilibria Sets forth the practical uses of supercritical water at both small scales and full industrial scales Throughout the book, the author uses tables for at-a-glance reviews of key information. Summaries at the end of each chapter reinforce core principles, and references to original research and reviews serve as a gateway and guide to the extensive literature in the field. Supercritical Water is written for students and professionals in physical chemistry, chemistry of water, chemical engineering, and organic chemistry, interested in exploring the applications and properties of supercritical water.

Supercritical Fluid Science and Technology


Supercritical Fluid Science and Technology
  • Author : Keith P. Johnston
  • Publisher : Amer Chemical Society
  • Release : 1989
  • ISBN : UOM:39015016106513
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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New directions in supercritical fluids science and technology, fluorescence spectroscopy studies of intermolecular interactions in supercritical fluids, solvation structure in supercritical fluid mixtures based on molecular distribution functions, gibbs-ensemble Monte Carlo simulations of phase equilibria in supercritical fluid mixtures, spectroscopic determination of solvent strength and structure in supercritical fluid mixtures, partition coefficients of polyethyle glycols in super critical carbon dioxide, experimental measurement of supercritical fluid-liquid phase equilibrium, vapor-liquid equilibria of fatty acid esters in supercritical fluids, four-phase equilibrium of two ternary organic systems with carbon dioxide, direct viscosity enhancement of carbon dioxide, inverse emulsion polymerization of acrylamide, interaction of polymers with near-critical carbon dioxide, fundamental kinetics of methanol oxidation in supercritical fluids, thermodynamic analysis of corrosion of iron alloys in supercritical water, electrochemical measurements of corrosion of iron alloys in supercritical water, phase and reaction equilibria considerations in the evaluation and operation of supercritical fluid reaction processes, kinetic model for supercritical delignification of wood, gas antisolvent recrystallization solids formation after the expansion of supercritical mixtures, food, pharmaceutical, and environmental applications, design of commercial plant.

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications


Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications
  • Author : Vladimir Anikeev
  • Publisher : Newnes
  • Release : 2013-12-21
  • ISBN : 9780444626974
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications covers the fundamental principles involved in the preparation and characterization of supercritical fluids (SCFs) used in the energy production and other environmental applications. Energy production from diversified resources — including renewable materials — using clean processes can be accomplished using technologies like SCFs. This book is focused on critical issues scientists and engineers face in applying SCFs to energy production and environmental protection, the innovative solutions they have found, and the challenges they need to overcome. The book also covers the basics of sub- and supercritical fluids, like the thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations. A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist. At this state the compound demonstrates unique properties, which can be "fine-tuned," making them suitable as organic solvents in a range of industrial and laboratory processes. This volume enables readers to select the most appropriate medium for a specific situation. It helps instructors prepare course material for graduate and postgraduate courses in the area of chemistry, chemical engineering, and environmental engineering. And it helps professional engineers learn supercritical fluid-based technologies and use them in solving the increasingly challenging environmental issues. Relates theory, chemical characteristics, and properties of the particular supercritical fluid to its various applications Covers the fundamentals of supercritical fluids, like thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations Includes the most recent applications of supercritical fluids, including energy generation, materials synthesis, and environmental protection