Macrophages Biology and Tissue Inflammation in Health and Disease Books

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Macrophages Biology and Role in the Pathology of Diseases


Macrophages  Biology and Role in the Pathology of Diseases
  • Author : Subhra K. Biswas
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2014-11-12
  • ISBN : 9781493913114
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Macrophages are a key component of the innate immune system and play an integral role in host defense and homeostasis. On one hand, these cells contribute to host defence by triggering inflammation, displaying microbicidal/tumoricidal properties, regulating the activation of adaptive immunity and promoting resolution of inflammation. On the other hand, they contribute to essential trophic functions such as neural patterning, bone morphogenesis and ductal branching in mammary glands. Thus, macrophages are extremely versatile cells that can respond efficiently to tissue micro environmental cues by polarizing to distinct phenotypes, depending on the functions they need to perform. Indeed, functional diversity and plasticity are hallmarks of these cells. Macrophages may also play a detrimental role. An overwhelming body of literature has indicated their crucial role in pathogenesis. The list includes sepsis, cancer, metabolic syndrome, immunodeficiency, auto-immune disease-virtually impacting every major pathology that we know. These observations have suggested macrophages and their related molecules as potential targets in therapeutic applications. Available evidence proclaims macrophages as a key player in homeostasis, host defense and disease. Crucial developments in the past few years call for a re-evaluation and update of our understanding of macrophages. The present book is an endeavour that attempts provide state-of-the art knowledge of these cells in health and disease.

M1 M2 Macrophages The Arginine Fork in the Road to Health and Disease


M1 M2 Macrophages  The Arginine Fork in the Road to Health and Disease
  • Author : Charles Dudley Mills
  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2015-03-23
  • ISBN : 9782889194995
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Macrophages have unique and diverse functions necessary for survival. And, in humans (and other species), they are the most abundant leukocytes in tissues. The Innate functions of macrophages that are best known are their unusual ability to either “Kill” or “Repair”. Since killing is a destructive process and repair is a constructive process, it was stupefying how one cell could exhibit these 2 polar – opposite functions. However, in the late 1980’s, it was shown that macrophages have a unique ability to enzymatically metabolize Arginine to Nitric Oxide (NO, a gaseous non – specific killer molecule) or to Ornithine (a precursor of polyamines and collagen for repair). The dual Arginine metabolic capacity of macrophages provided a functional explanation for their ability to kill or repair. Macrophages predominantly producing NO are called M1 and those producing Ornithine are called M2. M1 and M2 – dominant responses occur in lower vertebrates, and in T cell deficient vertebrates being directly driven by Damage and Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMP and PAMP). Thus, M1 and M2 are Innate responses that protect the host without Adaptive Immunity. In turn, M1/M2 is supplanting previous models in which T cells were necessary to “activate” or “alternatively activate” macrophages (the Th1/Th2 paradigm). M1 and M2 macrophages were named such because of the additional key findings that these macrophages stimulate Th1 and Th2 – like responses, respectively. So, in addition to their unique ability to kill or repair, macrophages also govern Adaptive Immunity. All of the foregoing would be less important if M1 or M2 – dominant responses were not observed in disease. But, they are. The best example to date is the predominance of M2 macrophages in human tumors where they act like wound repair macrophages and actively promote growth. More generally, humans have become M2 – dominant because sanitation, antibiotics and vaccines have lessened M1 responses. And, M2 dominance seems the cause of ever - increasing allergies in developed countries. Obesity represents a new and different circumstance. Surfeit energy (e.g., lipoproteins) causes monocytes to become M1 dominant in the vessel walls causing plaques. Because M1 or M2 dominant responses are clearly causative in many modern diseases, there is great potential in developing the means to selectively stimulate (or inhibit) either M1 or M2 responses to kill or repair, or to stimulate Th1 or Th2 responses, depending on the circumstance. The contributions here are meant to describe diseases of M1 or M2 dominance, and promising new methodologies to modulate the fungible metabolic machinery of macrophages for better health.

Janeway s Immunobiology


Janeway s Immunobiology
  • Author : Murphy, Kenneth M.
  • Publisher : W.W. Norton & Company
  • Release : 2016-03-22
  • ISBN : 9780815345510
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Explore the premier text for immunology at the advanced undergraduate, graduate, and medical school levels. Beginning students appreciate the bookÕs clear writing and informative illustrations, while advanced students and working immunologists value its comprehensive scope and depth. This edition is thoroughly revised and up to date with significant developments in the field, especially on the topic of innate immunity.

Adipose Tissue in Health and Disease


Adipose Tissue in Health and Disease
  • Author : Todd Leff
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2010-03-19
  • ISBN : 352762953X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This timely and most comprehensive reference available on the topic covers all the different aspects vital in the fight against the global obesity epidemic. Following a look at adipose tissue development and morphology, the authors go on to examine its metabolic and endocrine functions and its role in disease. The final section deals with comparative and evolutionary aspects of the tissue. The result is an essential resource for cell and molecular biologists, physiologists, biochemists, pharmacologists, and those working in the pharmaceutical industry.

The Resolution of Inflammation


The Resolution of Inflammation
  • Author : Adriano Rossi
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2008-03-17
  • ISBN : 376437506X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book provides readers with an up-to-date and comprehensive view on the resolution of inflammation and on new developments in this area, including pro-resolution mediators, apoptosis, macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells, possible novel drug developments.