Mathematical Approaches to Liver Transplantation Books

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Mathematical Approaches to Liver Transplantation


Mathematical Approaches to Liver Transplantation
  • Author : Eduardo Massad
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-03-20
  • ISBN : 9780128174371
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Mathematical Approaches to Liver Transplantation provides mathematical approaches to the optimization of liver graft distribution. Through mathematical and computational methods, several aspects related to organ allocation are tackled, with possible solutions presented. The book discusses topics such as patient selection for liver transplantation, transplantation procedures, dynamics of organs waiting list, improvement on grafts allocation, live donors and MELD scale. The content focuses on liver transplantation, however the mathematical approaches presented can be successfully replicated to different organs. This book is a valuable source for mathematical biologists, bioinformaticians, and several members of biomedical field who are involved in decision-making related to organs transplantation. Provides a mathematical approach to the optimization of liver grafts distribution Presents mathematical and computational methods for several aspects relating to organ allocations and discusses possible solutions Encompasses optimization models for the best organ distribution strategy to support decision-makers that are responsible for liver and other organ transplantation policies

Redesigning Liver Allocation Regions Through Optimization


Redesigning Liver Allocation Regions Through Optimization
  • Author : Timothy Edward Scully
  • Publisher :
  • Release : 2017
  • ISBN : OCLC:1006885196
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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End-stage liver disease is one of the leading causes of death in the United States, and the only viable treatment is liver transplantation. Since the quality of a donor liver decreases with transportation time, United States organ policy prioritizes transplants within geographic regions. However, the boundaries of these regions were defined mostly by informal relationships between transplant centers many decades ago, which has created local imbalances in supply and demand. As a result, candidates on the waiting list for donor livers face drastically different odds of receiving a transplant. Policy makers have noticed this geographic inequity and are considering proposals for alternative liver allocation approaches. This thesis uses mathematical optimization to redesign liver allocation regions by modeling and including several key elements of the allocation process directly in the optimization formulation. Specifically, we use a fluid approximation to model the dynamics of the wait-list progression and liver allocation. The model is fit using historical data of wait-list candidates and donors. Then, we propose two optimization formulations to reduce geographic inequality. The first directly minimizes the variation in median level of illness at the time of transplant across geographical areas, which is a key metric used by policy makers in addressing geographic inequality. The second approach minimizes the liver transport distance, subject to a certain allowable level of geographic variation. We discuss how these models can flexibly incorporate additional policy constraints to create more realistic models to reduce geographic variation. The region configurations are evaluated on key metrics relating to fairness and system efficiency using a standardized, validated, simulation approach widely accepted by policymakers. Finally, we propose a region design that significantly reduces geographic inequality without any substantial impact on the system's efficiency.

Frontiers in Transplantology


Frontiers in Transplantology
  • Author : Hesham Abdeldayem
  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2016-09-07
  • ISBN : 9789535125235
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book is addressed to researchers, practicing physicians, and surgeons in the field of organ transplantation, as well as the medical students, residents, and fellows. The topics covered include the religious concepts in organ transplantation, embryonic organ transplantation, tolerance, normothermic graft perfusion, pharmacogenetics of immunosuppressors, viral transmission in organ transplantation, pediatric and split-liver transplantation, portopulmonary hypertension, mechanical circulatory support, ex vivo lung perfusion, and ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation.

Transplant International Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation


Transplant International Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
  • Author :
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-11-11
  • ISBN : 9783642774232
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This supplement to Transplant International contains the Proceedings of the successful 5th Congress of the European Society for Organ Transplantation held in Maastricht from 7-10 October 1991. Of 827 abstracts submitted to the congress, 548 were selected by the Scien tific Committee for either oral or poster presentation. Of these 548 presenta tions, the guest editors selected 212 full papers for publication in this book. Two aspects are important where proceedings are concerned-the quality of the papers and the speed of publication. I thank our authors and guest editors, whose combined expertise has given us a guarantee of quality. I also thank our editorial and production teams for their tremendous efforts to hasten editing, proofreading, printing, and publication. In particular, I would like to express my gratitude to Maurits Booster, M.D., and Sylvia van Roosmalen for their assist ance and support in seeing this supplement through to completion. As a concession to time, we have waived some of our stringent rules of style and limited our correspondence with authors by, for example, page proofs being reviewed and corrected in house only. This enables us to publish two months earlier but has the disadvantage that, given the allotted time, we have not been able to ensure that each and every article has an abstract, nor that every "i" has been dotted in the reference lists or in the addresses/institute affiliations of all the authors.

Bioartificial Livers


Bioartificial Livers
  • Author : Adam James Davidson
  • Publisher :
  • Release : 2011
  • ISBN : OCLC:793676470
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In this work, a mathematical modelling approach is taken to improve and optimize the designs of bioartificial liver (BAL) systems. BALs are an alternative therapy for the extremely serious condition of liver failure where liver transplant is currently the only viable option. As yet, large-scale clinical trials have not been successful enough in order for BALs to gain regulatory approval. Through the work in this report, it is envisaged that BAL design can be improved to the point where they can gain clinical acceptance. One of the main issues in BAL design is the provision of adequate oxygen to the cell mass. To this end, a mathematical model to describe oxygen mass transport is developed based on the principle of Krogh cylinders. The results of this model are subsequently interpreted and presented in Operating Region charts, an image of a parameter space that corresponds to viable BAL designs. These charts allow several important design trends to be identified, e.g. numerous short and thin hollow fibres are favourable over fewer thicker, longer fibres. In addition, it is shown that a physiologically relevant cell number of more than 10% of the native liver cell mass can be supported in these devices under the right conditions. Subsequently the concept of the Operating Region is expanded to include zonation, a metabolic phenomenon where local oxygen tension is a primary modulator of liver cell function. It is found that zonation profiles can be well controlled and under standard conditions a plasma flow rate of 185 ml/min to the BAL would distribute the three metabolic zones evenly. Finally, the principles of the Operating Region charts and zonation are applied to three existing commercial BAL designs; the HepaMate, BLSS and ELAD systems. In each case it could be seen that the default designs of each system did not present ideal environments for liver cells. Through consideration of zonation profiles, each device design and operating parameters could be optimized to produce in vivo-like environments. In the case of the ELAD, reducing the plasma flow rate from 500 to 90 ml/min resulted in a balanced zonation profile. Overall, the work in this report has developed and detailed a series of tools that will assist a BAL designer in making judicious choices over bioreactor design and operating parameters. As a result, it is hoped that BALs can take a step forward towards clinical practice and ultimately saving lives.