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An Introduction to Nuclear Materials


An Introduction to Nuclear Materials
  • Author : K. Linga Murty
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2013-01-29
  • ISBN : 9783527407675
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Are you a visual learner? Do you prefer instructions that show you how to do something – and skip the long–winded explanations? If so, then this book is for you. Open it up and you′ll find clear, step–by–step screen shots that show you how to tackle more than 175 tasks involving HTML and CSS. Each task–based spread covers a single technique, sure to help you get up and running with HTML and CSS in no time. You′ll learn to: View HTML code in a browser Add and format text Prepare images for the Web Insert links to other pages Control layout with style sheets Add JavaScript to a Web page Helpful sidebars offer practical tips and tricks Succinct explanations walk you through step by step Full–color screen shots demonstrate each task Two–page lessons break big topics into bite–sized modules

An Introduction to Nuclear Materials


An Introduction to Nuclear Materials
  • Author : K. Linga Murty
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2013-07-26
  • ISBN : 9783527677085
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Covering both fundamental and advanced aspects in an accessible way, this textbook begins with an overview of nuclear reactor systems, helping readers to familiarize themselves with the varied designs. Then the readers are introduced to different possibilities for materials applications in the various sections of nuclear energy systems. Materials selection and life prediction methodologies for nuclear reactors are also presented in relation to creep, corrosion and other degradation mechanisms. An appendix compiles useful property data relevant for nuclear reactor applications. Throughout the book, there is a thorough coverage of various materials science principles, such as physical and mechanical metallurgy, defects and diffusion and radiation effects on materials, with serious efforts made to establish structure-property correlations wherever possible. With its emphasis on the latest developments and outstanding problems in the field, this is both a valuable introduction and a ready reference for beginners and experienced practitioners alike.

Physical and Mechanical Metallurgy of Zirconium Alloys for Nuclear Applications


Physical and Mechanical Metallurgy of Zirconium Alloys for Nuclear Applications
  • Author : Michael Vasily Glazoff
  • Publisher :
  • Release : 2015
  • ISBN : 1321738218
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In the post-Fukushima world, thermal and structural stability of materials under extreme conditions is an important issue for the safety of nuclear reactors. Because the nuclear industry will continue using zirconium (Zr) cladding for the foreseeable future, it becomes critical to gain a fundamental understanding of several interconnected problems. First, what are the thermodynamic and kinetic factors affecting oxidation and hydrogen pick-up by these materials at normal, off-normal conditions, and in long-term storage? Secondly, what protective coatings could be used in order to gain valuable time at off-normal conditions (temperature exceeds ~1200°C (2200°F)? Thirdly, the kinetics of the coating's oxidation must be understood. Lastly, one needs automated inspection algorithms allowing identifying cladding's defects. This work attempts to explore the problem from a computational perspective, utilizing first principles atomistic simulations, computational thermodynamics, plasticity theory, and morphological algorithms of image processing for defect identification. It consists of the four parts dealing with these four problem areas preceded by the introduction. In the 1st part, computational thermodynamics and ab initio calculations were used to shed light upon the different stages of zircaloy oxidation and hydrogen pickup, and microstructure optimization to increase thermal stability. The 2nd part describes the kinetic theory of oxidation of the several materials considered to be perspective coatings for Zr alloys: SiC and ZrSiO4. The 3rd part deals with understanding the respective roles of the two different plasticity mechanisms in Zr nuclear alloys: twinning (at low T) and crystallographic slip (higher T's). For that goal, an advanced plasticity model was proposed. In the 4th part projectional algorithms for defect identification in zircaloy coatings are described. Conclusions and recommendations are presented in the 5th part. This integrative approach's value is in developing multi-faceted understanding of complex processes taking place in nuclear fuel rods. It helped identify several problems pertaining to the safe operations with nuclear fuel: limits of temperature that should be strictly obeyed in storage to retard zircaloy hydriding; understanding the benefits and limitations of coatings; developing in-depth understanding of Zr plasticity; developing original algorithms for defect identification in SiC-braided zircaloy. The obtained results will be useful for the nuclear industry.

Structural Alloys for Nuclear Energy Applications


Structural Alloys for Nuclear Energy Applications
  • Author : Robert Odette
  • Publisher : Newnes
  • Release : 2019-08-15
  • ISBN : 9780123973498
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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High-performance alloys that can withstand operation in hazardous nuclear environments are critical to presentday in-service reactor support and maintenance and are foundational for reactor concepts of the future. With commercial nuclear energy vendors and operators facing the retirement of staff during the coming decades, much of the scholarly knowledge of nuclear materials pursuant to appropriate, impactful, and safe usage is at risk. Led by the multi-award winning editorial team of G. Robert Odette (UCSB) and Steven J. Zinkle (UTK/ORNL) and with contributions from leaders of each alloy discipline, Structural Alloys for Nuclear Energy Applications aids the next generation of researchers and industry staff developing and maintaining steels, nickel-base alloys, zirconium alloys, and other structural alloys in nuclear energy applications. This authoritative reference is a critical acquisition for institutions and individuals seeking state-of-the-art knowledge aided by the editors’ unique personal insight from decades of frontline research, engineering and management. Focuses on in-service irradiation, thermal, mechanical, and chemical performance capabilities. Covers the use of steels and other structural alloys in current fission technology, leading edge Generation-IV fission reactors, and future fusion power reactors. Provides a critical and comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art experimental knowledge base of reactor materials, for applications ranging from engineering safety and lifetime assessments to supporting the development of advanced computational models.

Physical and Mechanical Metallurgy of Zirconium Alloys for Nuclear Applications


Physical and Mechanical Metallurgy of Zirconium Alloys for Nuclear Applications
  • Author :
  • Publisher :
  • Release : 2014
  • ISBN : OCLC:965188377
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In the post-Fukushima world, the stability of materials under extreme conditions is an important issue for the safety of nuclear reactors. Because the nuclear industry is going to continue using advanced zirconium cladding materials in the foreseeable future, it become critical to gain fundamental understanding of the several interconnected problems. First, what are the thermodynamic and kinetic factors affecting the oxidation and hydrogen pick-up by these materials at normal, off-normal conditions, and in long-term storage? Secondly, what protective coatings (if any) could be used in order to gain extremely valuable time at off-normal conditions, e.g., when temperature exceeds the critical value of 2200°F? Thirdly, the kinetics of oxidation of such protective coating or braiding needs to be quantified. Lastly, even if some degree of success is achieved along this path, it is absolutely critical to have automated inspection algorithms allowing identifying defects of cladding as soon as possible. This work strives to explore these interconnected factors from the most advanced computational perspective, utilizing such modern techniques as first-principles atomistic simulations, computational thermodynamics of materials, diffusion modeling, and the morphological algorithms of image processing for defect identification. Consequently, it consists of the four parts dealing with these four problem areas preceded by the introduction and formulation of the studied problems. In the 1st part an effort was made to employ computational thermodynamics and ab initio calculations to shed light upon the different stages of oxidation of ziraloys (2 and 4), the role of microstructure optimization in increasing their thermal stability, and the process of hydrogen pick-up, both in normal working conditions and in long-term storage. The 2nd part deals with the need to understand the influence and respective roles of the two different plasticity mechanisms in Zr nuclear alloys: twinning (at low T) and crystallographic slip (higher T's). For that goal, a description of the advanced plasticity model is outlined featuring the non-associated flow rule in hcp materials including Zr. The 3rd part describes the kinetic theory of oxidation of the several materials considered to be perspective coating materials for Zr alloys: SiC and ZrSiO4. In the 4th part novel and advanced projectional algorithms for defect identification in zircaloy coatings are described. In so doing, the author capitalized on some 12 years of his applied industrial research in this area. Our conclusions and recommendations are presented in the 5th part of this work, along with the list of used literature and the scripts for atomistic, thermodynamic, kinetic, and morphological computations.