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Microcirculation


Microcirculation
  • Author : Ronald F. Tuma
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2011-04-28
  • ISBN : 0080569935
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This reference is a volume in the Handbook of Physiology, co-published with The American Physiological Society. Growth in knowledge about the microcirculation has been explosive with the field becoming fragmented into numerous subdisciplines and subspecialties. This volume pulls all of the critical information into one volume. Meticulously edited and reviewed. Benefit: Provides investigators a unique tool to explore the significance of their findings in the context of other aspects of the microcirculation. In this way, the updated edition has a direct role in helping to develop new pathways of research and scholarship Highlights the explosive growth in knowledge about the microcirculation including the biology of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), endothelial cell signaling, angiogenesis, cell adhesion molecules, lymphocyte trafficking, ion channels and receptors, and propagated vasomotor responses. Benefit: Microcirculatory biology has become fragmented into numerous sub-disciplines and subspecialties, and these reference reintegrates the information in one volume

Influence of Magnesium on Local Cerebral Microcirculation in Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Preliminary Data Using an Intraoperative Laser Doppler Spectrophotometry System


Influence of Magnesium on Local Cerebral Microcirculation in Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  Preliminary Data Using an Intraoperative Laser Doppler Spectrophotometry System
  • Author : Bju00f6rn Sommer
  • Publisher :
  • Release : 2017
  • ISBN : OCLC:1163848819
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Background and Goal of Study: The intravenous application of magnesium sulfate during neurosurgical procedures can foster vasodilatation, which is a desirable mechanism in vasospasm therapy especially in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, there are only few reports dealing with the impact of magnesium on local cerebral microcirculation in those patients. We present our preliminary results using a novel non-invasive, real-time measurement device during neurosurgical procedures.Materials and Methods: In this prospective, single-institution, non-randomized trial we studied local cerebral microcirculation using the non-invasive laser-Doppler spectrophotometry system u201eOxygen-to-see(O2C)u201c in 10 consecutive patients with aneurysmatic SAH Hunt and Hess grade 2 to 5 with aneurysms of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries. After dura opening, a probe was placed onto the cortex next to the site of preparation. In 7 mm tissue depth, capillary venous oxygenation (SO2), post-capillary venous filling pressures (rHb), blood cell velocity (velo) and blood flow (flow) were measured. Data was recorded as baseline immediately before application of 5 g magnesium sulfate 10% and 10 minutes thereafter over a time period of 30 seconds. Magnesium sulfate was administred continously with a infusion rate depending on blood pressure (>100 mmHg systolic) over a time period of max. 60 minutes.Results and Discussion: We observed a higher median flow of 22% (4-70%) and velo of 9% (6-32%), no changes in SO2, and a decrease of rHb of 7% (5-30%) compared to the baseline measurements. This indicates an increased cerebral blood flow on the microcirculatory level. Anesthesiological parameters remained stable with temperature corrected partial carbon dioxide pressure 37.8u00b13.6 mmHg, hemoglobin 11.6u00b11.6 g/dl, hydrogencarbonate 24u00b11.1 mmol/l, positive endexpiratory pressure of 1 to 3 mBar, systolic/diastolic blood pressure of 102u00b113.3 mmHg and 55u00b18.9 mmHg, mean arterial blood pressure of 72.5u00b110.1 mmHg, heart rate 56u00b110.3 bpm, endexpiratory CO2 of 31u00b12.4%, inspiratory O2 of 45u00b17.8%, bladder temperature 35.8u00b10.6u00b0C. Conclusion: Data indicate that local cerebral microcirculation is increased after intravenous application of magnesium sulfate in patients with aneurysmatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Continous real-time monitoring of brain perfusion parameters could possibly guide the rate, duration and concentration of magnesium sulfate to prevent vasospasm.This study is supported by the Johannes und Frieda Marohn-Stiftung (Erlangen, Germany), grant No. So/2012.

Microcirculation


Microcirculation
  • Author : Gabor Kaley
  • Publisher :
  • Release : 1980
  • ISBN : 0839109814
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Inflammation and the Microcirculation


Inflammation and the Microcirculation
  • Author : D. Neil Granger
  • Publisher : Morgan & Claypool Publishers
  • Release : 2010
  • ISBN : 9781615041657
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The microcirculation is highly responsive to, and a vital participant in, the inflammatory response. All segments of the microvasculature (arterioles, capillaries, and venules) exhibit characteristic phenotypic changes during inflammation that appear to be directed toward enhancing the delivery of inflammatory cells to the injured/infected tissue, isolating the region from healthy tissue and the systemic circulation, and setting the stage for tissue repair and regeneration. The best characterized responses of the microcirculation to inflammation include impaired vasomotor function, reduced capillary perfusion, adhesion of leukocytes and platelets, activation of the coagulation cascade, and enhanced thrombosis, increased vascular permeability, and an increase in the rate of proliferation of blood and lymphatic vessels. A variety of cells that normally circulate in blood (leukocytes, platelets) or reside within the vessel wall (endothelial cells, pericytes) or in the perivascular space (mast cells, macrophages) are activated in response to inflammation. The activation products and chemical mediators released from these cells act through different well-characterized signaling pathways to induce the phenotypic changes in microvessel function that accompany inflammation. Drugs that target a specific microvascular response to inflammation, such as leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion or angiogenesis, have shown promise in both the preclinical and clinical studies of inflammatory disease. Future research efforts in this area will likely identify new avenues for therapeutic intervention in inflammation.

The Physiology and Pharmacology of the Microcirculation


The Physiology and Pharmacology of the Microcirculation
  • Author : Nicholas A. Mortillaro
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2013-10-22
  • ISBN : 9781483262086
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Physiology and Pharmacology of the Microcirculation, Volume 2, discusses the microcirculatory function of specific organ systems. The first volume of The Physiology and Pharmacology of the Microcirculation presented some general aspects of microcirculatory function and then concentrated on the microcirculation of a specific organ system, namely, brain, eye, heart, and kidneys. This second and final volume continues the presentation of microcirculatory function of specific organ systems. The book begins with a chapter on the microcirculation of the lungs, with a description of its microcirculatory features and current methods of study. This is followed by separate chapters on the microcirculation of the splanchnic organs. These include the stomach, emphasizing hemodynamics, tissue oxygenation, and control of blood flow; the small and large intestine. Subsequent chapters deal with the microcirculatory responses of both the liver and spleen to different physiological and pharmacological challenges; the microcirculation of the skin, with emphasis on human microcirculation; normal and abnormal microcirculatory dynamics in skeletal muscle; microcirculation of bone; and microcirculation of the salivary glands and exocrine pancreas. The final chapter presents a selective review of pathological events involving the microcirculation, with the emphasis directed toward human diseases.