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Particle Formation with Supercritical Fluids


Particle Formation with Supercritical Fluids
  • Author : Michael Türk
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2014-11-06
  • ISBN : 9780444594433
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Particle formation with supercritical fluids is a promising alternative to conventional precipitation processes as it allows the reduction of particle size and control of morphology and particle size distribution without degradation or contamination of the product. The book comprehensively examines the current status of research and development and provides perspectives and insights on promising future directions. The introduction to high pressure and high temperature phase equilibria and nucleation phenomena provides the basic principles of the underlying physical and chemical phenomena, allowing the reader an understanding of the relationship between process conditions and particle characteristics. Bridging the gap between theory and application, the book imparts the scientific and engineering fundamentals for innovative particle formation processes. The interdisciplinary "modus operandi" will encourage cooperation between scientists and researchers from different but complementary disciplines. Focuses on the general principles of particle formation in supercritical fluids Considers high pressure and high temperature phase equilibria, fluid dynamics and nucleation theory Discusses the underlying physical and chemical phenomena needed to understand the different applications, pointing out the relationship between process conditions and product properties

Novel Approaches for Controlled Particle Formation Using Supercritical Fluid Technology


Novel Approaches for Controlled Particle Formation Using Supercritical Fluid Technology
  • Author : Mazen H. Hanna
  • Publisher :
  • Release : 1995
  • ISBN : OCLC:1179805985
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A novel apparatus and methods of controlled particle formation from supercritical fluids are proposed. A solution of the material of interest is fed together with a fluid (e.g. CO2) above its critical point through a concentric nozzle into a high pressure vessel. The temperature and pressure of the vessel are controlled by a thermocouple and an automated back pressure regulator respectively. The supercritical fluid disperses, mixes and rapidly extracts the solvent leading to formation of particulate products. The products are retained in the high pressure vessel by a particle retention device. The supercritical solution (i.e. the supercritical fluid and the solvent) emerging from the back pressure regulator is allowed to expand so that the solvent may separate from the gas, and both are recycled. By changing the working conditions of pressure, temperature and flow rate of the solution to the supercritical fluid, it is possible to control the size, shape and morphology of the products - increase of the pressure and/or flow rate of the supercritical fluid led to a decrease in particle size. Products prepared by this new technique include, drug materials, inorganics, polymers, carbohydrates and proteins. Microparticulate products of the drug salmeterol xinafoate exhibit narrow size distribution, batch-to-batch consistency, high degree of crystallinity, enhanced chemical and polymorphic purity, low dynamic bulk density, undetectable amounts of residual solvent content and are free flowing with low dispersion energy due to lack of static charge. This new method of preparation of particles from supercritical fluids has potential applicatlon to industrial particle formation processing avoiding problems of conventional crystallisation procedures.

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications


Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications
  • Author : Vladimir Anikeev
  • Publisher : Newnes
  • Release : 2013-12-21
  • ISBN : 9780444626974
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications covers the fundamental principles involved in the preparation and characterization of supercritical fluids (SCFs) used in the energy production and other environmental applications. Energy production from diversified resources — including renewable materials — using clean processes can be accomplished using technologies like SCFs. This book is focused on critical issues scientists and engineers face in applying SCFs to energy production and environmental protection, the innovative solutions they have found, and the challenges they need to overcome. The book also covers the basics of sub- and supercritical fluids, like the thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations. A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist. At this state the compound demonstrates unique properties, which can be "fine-tuned," making them suitable as organic solvents in a range of industrial and laboratory processes. This volume enables readers to select the most appropriate medium for a specific situation. It helps instructors prepare course material for graduate and postgraduate courses in the area of chemistry, chemical engineering, and environmental engineering. And it helps professional engineers learn supercritical fluid-based technologies and use them in solving the increasingly challenging environmental issues. Relates theory, chemical characteristics, and properties of the particular supercritical fluid to its various applications Covers the fundamentals of supercritical fluids, like thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations Includes the most recent applications of supercritical fluids, including energy generation, materials synthesis, and environmental protection

Particles Formation Using Supercritical Fluids


Particles Formation Using Supercritical Fluids
  • Author : A. Montes
  • Publisher :
  • Release : 2011
  • ISBN : OCLC:1154260213
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Particles Formation Using Supercritical Fluids.

Supercritical Fluids as Solvents and Reaction Media


Supercritical Fluids as Solvents and Reaction Media
  • Author : Gerd H. Brunner
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2004-06-11
  • ISBN : 0080542107
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Supercritical fluids behave either like a gas or a liquid, depending on the values of thermodynamic properties. This tuning of properties, and other advantageous properties of supercritical fluids led to innovative technologies. More than 100 plants of production size are now in operation worldwide in the areas of process and production technology, environmental applications, and particle engineering. New processes are under research and development in various fields. This book provides an overview of the research activities in the field of Supercritical Fluids in Germany. It is based on the research program "Supercritical fluids as solvents and reaction media" on the initiative of the "GVC-Fachausschuß Hochdruckverfahrenstechnik" (i.e. the German working party on High Pressure Chemical Engineering of the Society of Chemical Engineers). This research program provided an immensely valuable platform for exchange of knowledge and experience. More than 50 young researchers were involved contributing with their expertise, their new ideas, and the motivation of youth. The results of this innovative research are described in this book. - This book provides an overview of the research activities in the field of Supercritical Fluids in Germany - Contains results of projects within the research program on "Supercritical fluids as solvents and reaction media" on the initiative of the German working party on High Pressure Chemical Engineering of the Society of Chemical Engineers. - More than 50 young researchers were involved in contributing with their expertise, their new ideas, and the motivation of youth.