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Principles of Asymmetric Synthesis


Principles of Asymmetric Synthesis
  • Author : Robert E. Gawley
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2012
  • ISBN : 9780080448602
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The world is chiral. Most of the molecules in it are chiral, and asymmetric synthesis is an important means by which enantiopure chiral molecules may be obtained for study and sale. Using examples from the literature of asymmetric synthesis (more than 1300 references), the aim of this book is to present a detailed analysis of the factors that govern stereoselectivity in organic reactions. It is important to note that the references were each individually checked by the authors to verify relevance to the topics under discussion. The study of stereoselectivity has evolved from issues of diastereoselectivity, through auxiliary-based methods for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure compounds (diastereoselectivity followed by separation and auxiliary cleavage), to asymmetric catalysis. In the latter instance, enantiomers (not diastereomers) are the products, and highly selective reactions and modern purification techniques allow preparation - in a single step - of chiral substances in 99% ee for many reaction types. After an explanation of the basic physical-organic principles of stereoselectivity, the authors provide a detailed, annotated glossary of stereochemical terms. A chapter on "Analytical Methods" provides a critical overview of the most common methods for analysis of stereoisomers. The authors then follow the 'tried-and-true' format of grouping the material by reaction type. Thus, there are four chapters on carbon-carbon bond forming reactions (enolate alkylations, organometal additions to carbonyls, aldol and Michael reactions, and cycloadditions and rearrangements), one chapter on reductions and hydroborations (carbon-hydrogen bond forming reactions), and one on oxidations (carbon-oxygen and carbon-nitrogen bond forming reactions). Leading references are provided to natural product synthesis that have been accomplished using a given reaction as a key step. In addition to tables of examples that show high selectivity, a transition state analysis is presented to explain - to the current level of understanding - the stereoselectivity of each reaction. In one case (Cram's rule) the evolution of the current theory is detailed from its first tentative (1952) postulate to the current Felkin-Anh-Heathcock formalism. For other reactions, only the currently accepted rationale is presented. Examination of these rationales also exposes the weaknesses of current theories, in that they cannot always explain the experimental observations. These shortcomings provide a challenge for future mechanistic investigations. Authoritative glossary to aid understanding of stereochemical terminology Explanations of the key factors influencing stereoselectivity with numerous examples, organized by reaction type A handy reference guide to the literature of asymmetric synthesis for practitioners in the field

Principles of Asymmetric Synthesis


Principles of Asymmetric Synthesis
  • Author : R.E. Gawley
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 1996-11-21
  • ISBN : 0080514774
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The world is chiral. Most of the molecules in it are chiral, and asymmetric synthesis is an important means by which enantiopure chiral molecules may be obtained for study and sale. Using examples from the literature of asymmetric synthesis (more than 1300 references), the aim of this book is to present a detailed analysis of the factors that govern stereoselectivity in organic reactions. It is important to note that the references were each individually checked by the authors to verify relevance to the topics under discussion. The study of stereoselectivity has evolved from issues of diastereoselectivity, through auxiliary-based methods for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure compounds (diastereoselectivity followed by separation and auxiliary cleavage), to asymmetric catalysis. In the latter instance, enantiomers (not diastereomers) are the products, and highly selective reactions and modern purification techniques allow preparation - in a single step - of chiral substances in 99% ee for many reaction types. After an explanation of the basic physical-organic principles of stereoselectivity, the authors provide a detailed, annotated glossary of stereochemical terms. A chapter on "Analytical Methods" provides a critical overview of the most common methods for analysis of stereoisomers. The authors then follow the 'tried-and-true' format of grouping the material by reaction type. Thus, there are four chapters on carbon-carbon bond forming reactions (enolate alkylations, organometal additions to carbonyls, aldol and Michael reactions, and cycloadditions and rearrangements), one chapter on reductions and hydroborations (carbon-hydrogen bond forming reactions), and one on oxidations (carbon-oxygen and carbon-nitrogen bond forming reactions). Leading references are provided to natural product synthesis that have been accomplished using a given reaction as a key step. In addition to tables of examples that show high selectivity, a transition state analysis is presented to explain - to the current level of understanding - the stereoselectivity of each reaction. In one case (Cram's rule) the evolution of the current theory is detailed from its first tentative (1952) postulate to the current Felkin-Anh-Heathcock formalism. For other reactions, only the currently accepted rationale is presented. Examination of these rationales also exposes the weaknesses of current theories, in that they cannot always explain the experimental observations. These shortcomings provide a challenge for future mechanistic investigations.

Principles and Applications of Asymmetric Synthesis


Principles and Applications of Asymmetric Synthesis
  • Author : Guo-Qiang Lin
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2003-05-29
  • ISBN : 9780471465249
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Asymmetric synthesis remains a challenge to practicing scientistsas the need for enantiomerically pure or enriched compoundscontinues to increase. Over the last decade, a large amount ofliterature has been published in this field. Principles andApplications of Asymmetric Synthesis consolidates and evaluates themost useful methodologies into a one-volume resource for theconvenience of practicing scientists and students. Authored by internationally renowned scientists in the field, thisreliable reference covers more than 450 reactions and includesimportant stoichiometric as well as catalytic asymmetric reactions.The first chapter reviews the basic principles, commonnomenclature, and analytical methods, and the remainder of the bookis organized according to reaction type. The text examines suchtopics as: Carbon-carbon bond formations involving carbonyls, enamines,imines, and enolates Asymmetric C-O bond formations including epoxidation,dihydroxylation, and aminohydroxylation Asymmetric synthesis using the Diels-Alder reaction and othercyclizations Applications to the total synthesis of natural products Use of enzymes in asymmetric synthesis Practicing chemists in the pharmaceutical, fine chemical, andagricultural professions as well as graduate students will findthat Principles and Applications of Asymmetric Synthesis affordscomprehensive and current coverage.

Asymmetric Synthesis


Asymmetric Synthesis
  • Author : Garry Procter
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press on Demand
  • Release : 1996
  • ISBN : 0198557256
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book covers a wide range of reactions which are of importance in the asymmetric synthesis of organic compounds. The principles of asymmetric additions to carbonyls, enolate alkylation, aldol reactions, additions to C-C double bonds, reduction and oxidation, rearrangements, and hydrolysis/ esterification reactions are covered, and selected examples used to illustrated the various topics. Numerous references to original literature should be of ues to organic chemists interested in the area of asymmetric synthesis.

Dynamic Stereochemistry of Chiral Compounds


Dynamic Stereochemistry of Chiral Compounds
  • Author : Christian Wolf
  • Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
  • Release : 2008
  • ISBN : 9780854042463
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A comprehensive overview of fundamental concepts of asymmetric synthesis along with in-depth discussion. Recent developments that address important synthetic challenges are presented and highlighted with hundreds of examples.