Retinal Computation Books

Click Get Book Button To Download or read online Retinal Computation books, Available in PDF, ePub, Tuebl and Kindle. This site is like a library, Use search box in the widget to get ebook that you want.

Retinal Computation


Retinal Computation
  • Author : Greg Schwartz
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2021-09-03
  • ISBN : 0128198966
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Retinal Computation summarizes current progress in defining the computations performed by the retina, also including the synaptic and circuit mechanisms by which they are implemented. Each chapter focuses on a single retinal computation that includes the definition of the computation and its neuroethological purpose, along with the available information on its known and unknown neuronal mechanisms. All chapters contain end-of-chapter questions associated with a landmark paper, as well as programming exercises. This book is written for advanced graduate students, researchers and ophthalmologists interested in vision science or computational neuroscience of sensory systems. While the typical textbook's description of the retina is akin to a biological video camera, the real retina is actually the world's most complex image processing machine. As part of the central nervous system, the retina converts patterns of light at the input into a rich palette of representations at the output. The parallel streams of information in the optic nerve encode features like color, contrast, orientation of edges, and direction of motion. Image processing in the retina is undeniably complex, but as one of the most accessible parts of the central nervous system, the tools to study retinal circuits with unprecedented precision are up to the task. This book provides a practical guide and resource about the current state of the field of retinal computation. Provides a practical guide on the field of retinal computation Summarizes and clearly explains important topics such as luminance, contrast, spatial features, motion and other computations Contains discussion questions, a landmark paper, and programming exercises within each chapter

New Trends in Neural Computation


New Trends in Neural Computation
  • Author : International Workshop on Artificial Neural Networks$ (1993 : Sitges, Espagne)
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 1993-05-27
  • ISBN : 3540567984
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Neural computation arises from the capacity of nervous tissue to process information and accumulate knowledge in an intelligent manner. Conventional computational machines have encountered enormous difficulties in duplicatingsuch functionalities. This has given rise to the development of Artificial Neural Networks where computation is distributed over a great number of local processing elements with a high degree of connectivityand in which external programming is replaced with supervised and unsupervised learning. The papers presented in this volume are carefully reviewed versions of the talks delivered at the International Workshop on Artificial Neural Networks (IWANN '93) organized by the Universities of Catalonia and the Spanish Open University at Madrid and held at Barcelona, Spain, in June 1993. The 111 papers are organized in seven sections: biological perspectives, mathematical models, learning, self-organizing networks, neural software, hardware implementation, and applications (in five subsections: signal processing and pattern recognition, communications, artificial vision, control and robotics, and other applications).

Computational Retinal Image Analysis


Computational Retinal Image Analysis
  • Author : Emanuele Trucco
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2019-11-25
  • ISBN : 9780081028179
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Computational Retinal Image Analysis: Tools, Applications and Perspectives gives an overview of contemporary retinal image analysis (RIA) in the context of healthcare informatics and artificial intelligence. Specifically, it provides a history of the field, the clinical motivation for RIA, technical foundations (image acquisition modalities, instruments), computational techniques for essential operations, lesion detection (e.g. optic disc in glaucoma, microaneurysms in diabetes) and validation, as well as insights into current investigations drawing from artificial intelligence and big data. This comprehensive reference is ideal for researchers and graduate students in retinal image analysis, computational ophthalmology, artificial intelligence, biomedical engineering, health informatics, and more. Provides a unique, well-structured and integrated overview of retinal image analysis Gives insights into future areas, such as large-scale screening programs, precision medicine, and computer-assisted eye care Includes plans and aspirations of companies and professional bodies

Contrast Sensitization


Contrast Sensitization
  • Author : David B. Kastner
  • Publisher :
  • Release : 2013
  • ISBN : OCLC:850206468
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Adaptation provides a ubiquitous strategy for neural circuits to encode their inputs using their limited dynamic range within the variety of sensory environments that they encounter. However, because of the inherent timescale necessary to optimize the response properties of a cell to its environment, any form of adaptive plasticity can cause a neuron to fail to encode the stimulus when the environment changes. Many ganglion cells, the output neurons of the retina, adapt so as to lower their sensitivity in an environment of high contrast, but if the contrast subsequently decreases the cell will fall below threshold and fail to signal. I have found a distinct form of plasticity within the retina that acts in coordination with the process of adaptation. Cells using this new form of plasticity elevate their sensitivity after a transition to low contrast. This process, called sensitization, occurs in retinas from multiple species. Multielectrode recordings from sensitizing and adapting cells indicate that both populations encode the same visual signals. The complementary action of the two populations helps the retina encode its input over a broader range of signals and environmental changes, with one population continuing to respond when the other fails. The threshold placement of these two cell types further enhances their coordination because sensitizing cells maintain lower thresholds, while adapting cells maintain higher thresholds. Using a theoretical model, I was able to show that this behavior maximized the amount of information that the two populations can provide about their input. I have further studied the spatiotemporal region that controlled the sensitivity of a cell--the adaptive field. Just as retinal circuitry uses excitation and inhibition to form biphasic center-surround receptive fields, the retina can also use adaptation and sensitization to form biphasic adaptive fields in both the spatial and temporal domains. Since visual statistics are correlated across time and space, center-surround biphasic receptive fields more efficiently encode the input by subtracting a prediction of the stimulus so as to just encode the deviation from that prediction. Biphasic adaptive fields appear to perform an opposite function, transmitting a prediction of the stimulus at the transition of a stimulus environment to weaker signals. This assists in the encoding of an uncertain environment by storing features of a predictable input. A model indicates that sensitization within the adaptive field can be produced by adapting inhibition, a form of plasticity whose function was previously unknown. Using pharmacology, I confirmed this prediction, showing that GABAergic inhibition is necessary for sensitization. Using simultaneous intracellular recording from inhibitory amacrine cells and multielectrode recording from ganglion cells, I show that transmission from a single amacrine cell is sucient to cause sensitization. Using a novel approach to analyze a circuit, I quantitatively describe the changes in amacrine cell transmission that underlie sensitization thus elucidating how the retina performs this sophisticated computation.

Predictions in the Brain


Predictions in the Brain
  • Author : Moshe Bar
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2011-05-10
  • ISBN : 0199840954
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

When one is immersed in the fascinating world of neuroscience findings, the brain might start to seem like a collection of "modules," each specializes in a specific mental feat. But just like in other domains of Nature, it is possible that much of the brain and mind's operation can be explained with a small set of universal principles. Given exciting recent developments in theory, empirical findings and computational studies, it seems that the generation of predictions might be one strong candidate for such a universal principle. This is the focus of Predictions in the brain. From the predictions required when a rat navigates a maze to food-caching in scrub-jays; from predictions essential in decision-making to social interactions; from predictions in the retina to the prefrontal cortex; and from predictions in early development to foresight in non-humans. The perspectives represented in this collection span a spectrum from the cellular underpinnings to the computational principles underlying future-related mental processes, and from systems neuroscience to cognition and emotion. In spite of this diversity, they share some core elements. Memory, for instance, is critical in any framework that explains predictions. In asking "what is next?" our brains have to refer to memory and experience on the way to simulating our mental future. But as much as this collection offers answers to important questions, it raises and emphasizes outstanding ones. How are experiences coded optimally to afford using them for predictions? How do we construct a new simulation from separate memories? How specific in detail are future-oriented thoughts, and when do they rely on imagery, concepts or language? Therefore, in addition to presenting the state-of-the-art of research and ideas about predictions as a universal principle in mind and brain, it is hoped that this collection will stimulate important new research into the foundations of our mental lives.