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Rotary Kilns


Rotary Kilns
  • Author : Akwasi A Boateng
  • Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
  • Release : 2011-03-31
  • ISBN : 9780080557120
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Rotary Kilns—rotating industrial drying ovens—are used for a wide variety of applications including processing raw minerals and feedstocks as well as heat-treating hazardous wastes. They are particularly critical in the manufacture of Portland cement. Their design and operation is critical to their efficient usage, which if done incorrectly can result in improperly treated materials and excessive, high fuel costs. This professional reference book will be the first comprehensive book in many years that treats all engineering aspects of rotary kilns, including a thorough grounding in the thermal and fluid principles involved in their operation, as well as how to properly design an engineering process that uses rotary kilns. Chapter 1: The Rotary Kiln Evolution & Phenomenon Chapter 2: Basic Description of Rotary Kiln Operation Chapter 3: Freeboard Aerodynamic Phenomena Chapter 4: Granular Flows in Rotary Kilns Chapter 5: Mixing & Segregation Chapter 6: Combustion and Flame Chapter 7: Freeboard Heat Transfer Chapter 8: Heat Transfer Processes in the Rotary Kiln Bed Chapter 9: Mass & Energy Balance Chapter 10: Rotary Kiln Minerals Process Applications ·Covers fluid flow, granular flow, mixing and segregation, and aerodynamics during turbulent mixing and recirculation ·Offers hard-to-find guidance on fuels used for rotary kilns, including fuel options such as natural gas versus coal-fired rotary kilns ·Explains principles of combustion and flame control, heat transfer and heating and material balances

Rotary Kilns


Rotary Kilns
  • Author : Akwasi A Boateng
  • Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
  • Release : 2008-03-10
  • ISBN : 9780750678773
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Rotary Kilns—rotating industrial drying ovens—are used for a wide variety of applications including processing raw minerals and feedstocks as well as heat-treating hazardous wastes. They are particularly critical in the manufacture of Portland cement. Their design and operation is critical to their efficient usage, which if done incorrectly can result in improperly treated materials and excessive, high fuel costs. This professional reference book will be the first comprehensive book in many years that treats all engineering aspects of rotary kilns, including a thorough grounding in the thermal and fluid principles involved in their operation, as well as how to properly design an engineering process that uses rotary kilns. Chapter 1: The Rotary Kiln Evolution & Phenomenon Chapter 2: Basic Description of Rotary Kiln Operation Chapter 3: Freeboard Aerodynamic Phenomena Chapter 4: Granular Flows in Rotary Kilns Chapter 5: Mixing & Segregation Chapter 6: Combustion and Flame Chapter 7: Freeboard Heat Transfer Chapter 8: Heat Transfer Processes in the Rotary Kiln Bed Chapter 9: Mass & Energy Balance Chapter 10: Rotary Kiln Minerals Process Applications ·Covers fluid flow, granular flow, mixing and segregation, and aerodynamics during turbulent mixing and recirculation ·Offers hard-to-find guidance on fuels used for rotary kilns, including fuel options such as natural gas versus coal-fired rotary kilns ·Explains principles of combustion and flame control, heat transfer and heating and material balances

The Rotary Cement Kiln


The Rotary Cement Kiln
  • Author : Kurt E. Peray
  • Publisher : California Historical Society
  • Release : 1986
  • ISBN : 0820603678
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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An indispensable reference source and training tool not only for kiln operators, but for supervisors and management staff as well. Extensive discussions on pre-heater and pre-calciner operations are included. The appendix includes a section with conversion tables, definitions of common terms relating to rotary kilns, and a suggested outline for a training program for new operators. Contents PART 1. KILN SYSTEMS AND THEORY 1. History 3 2. Types of Rotary Kilns 6 3. The Refractory 17 4. Fuels 37 5. Combustion 44 6. The Flame 63 7. Heat Transfer 83 8. Heat Balances 106 9. The Chemistry of Kiln Feed and Clinker 115 10. Reaction Zones in the Rotary Kiln 141 11. Coating and Ring Formation in a Rotary Kiln 147 12. The Air Circuit in a Rotary Kiln 155 13. Movement of Material Through the Kiln 174 PART II. KILN OPERATING PROCEDURES 199 14. Kiln Operating and Control Methods 201 15. Instrumentation 207 16. Kiln Control Variables 232 17. Fuel Systems 253 18. Clinker Cooler Control 266 19. Kiln Exit-Gas Temperature Control 292 20. Feed-Rate Control 299 2I. Kiln Starts and Shutdowns 308 22. The 27 Basic Kiln Conditions 327 23. Kiln Emergency Conditions 346 24. Safety and Accident Prevention 362 Appendix A: The International System of Units (SI) 367 Appendix B: Weights and Measures 369 Appendix C: Temperature Conversions 378 Appendix D: Kiln Operator's Quiz 382 Index 386

Limestone Sorbent Regeneration in Externally Fired Rotary Kilns


Limestone Sorbent Regeneration in Externally Fired Rotary Kilns
  • Author :
  • Publisher :
  • Release : 1979
  • ISBN : OCLC:1065664096
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Externally fired rotary kilns were evaluated for use as regeneration reactors for the spent limestone sorbent from a fluid-bed combustor. Coke and spent sorbent containing approximately 8 wt % sulfur were reacted at temperatures between 960 and 1060/sup 0/C in two laboratory-scale externally fired rotary kilns to produce lime sorbent suitable for reuse, and concentrated SO/sub 2/. It was possible to achieve a high percent of sorbent regeneration, but the SO/sub 2/ concentration in the off-gas was low. Different operating conditions were required to produce a higher concentration of SO/sub 2/ in the off-gas, and under these conditions, the percent of sorbent regeneration was low. Two empirical equations and the shrinking-core reaction-rate model were examined for application to the experimentally determined kinetic data. The shrinking-core model appeared to fit the data better than the empirical equations, and could be a useful predictor of the conversion of sulfated limestone and of the SO/sub 2/ concentration in the off-gas from a rotary-kiln regenerator. The materials used in the construction of one of the laboratory kilns were typical of commercially available production-size rotary kilns that are externally fired. However, the materials of construction were not sufficiently durable to withstand the high SO/sub 2/ concentrations and high temperatures involved in this reaction.

Heat Transfer in Rotary Kilns with Due Regard to Cyclic Processes and Phase Formation


Heat Transfer in Rotary Kilns with Due Regard to Cyclic Processes and Phase Formation
  • Author : Paul Weber
  • Publisher :
  • Release : 1963
  • ISBN : WISC:89038750733
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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