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Solution Thermodynamics and its Application to Aqueous Solutions


Solution Thermodynamics and its Application to Aqueous Solutions
  • Author : Yoshikata Koga
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2007-11-12
  • ISBN : 0080551874
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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As the title suggests, we introduce a novel differential approach to solution thermodynamics and use it for the study of aqueous solutions. We evaluate the quantities of higher order derivative than the normal thermodynamic functions. We allow these higher derivative data speak for themselves without resorting to any model system. We thus elucidate the molecular processes in solution, (referred to in this book “mixing scheme ), to the depth equal to, if not deeper, than that gained by spectroscopic and other methods. We show that there are three composition regions in aqueous solutions of non-electrolytes, each of which has a qualitatively distinct mixing scheme. The boundary between the adjacent regions is associated with an anomaly in the third derivatives of G. The loci of the anomalies in the temperature-composition field form the line sometimes referred as “Koga line . We then take advantage of the anomaly of a third derivative quantity of 1-propanol in the ternary aqueous solution, 1-propanol – sample species – H2O. We use its induced change as a probe of the effect of a sample species on H2O. In this way, we clarified what a hydrophobe, or a hydrophile, and in turn, an amphiphile, does to H2O. We also apply the same methodology to ions that have been ranked by the Hofmeister series. We show that the kosmotropes (salting out, or stabilizing agents) are either hydrophobes or hydration centres, and that chaotropes (salting in, or destablizing agents) are hydrophiles. A new differential approach to solution thermodynamics A particularly clear elucidation of the mixing schemes in aqueous solutions A clear understandings on the effects of hydrophobes, hydrophiles, and amphiphiles to H2O A clear understandings on the effects of ions on H2O in relation to the Hofmeister effect A new differential approach to studies in muti-component aqueous solutions

Solution Thermodynamics and Its Application to Aqueous Solutions


Solution Thermodynamics and Its Application to Aqueous Solutions
  • Author : Yoshikata Koga
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2017-03-28
  • ISBN : 9780444636300
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Solution Thermodynamics and its Application to Aqueous Solutions: A Differential Approach, Second Edition introduces a differential approach to solution thermodynamics, applying it to the study of aqueous solutions. This valuable approach reveals the molecular processes in solutions in greater depth than that gained by spectroscopic and other methods. The book clarifies what a hydrophobe, or a hydrophile, and in turn, an amphiphile, does to H2O. By applying the same methodology to ions that have been ranked by the Hofmeister series, the author shows that the kosmotropes are either hydrophobes or hydration centers, and that chaotropes are hydrophiles. This unique approach and important updates make the new edition a must-have reference for those active in solution chemistry. Unique differential approach to solution thermodynamics allows for experimental evaluation of the intermolecular interaction Incorporates research findings from over 40 articles published since the previous edition Numerical or graphical evaluation and direct experimental determination of third derivatives, enthalpic and volumetric AL-AL interactions and amphiphiles are new to this edition Features new chapters on spectroscopic study in aqueous solutions as well as environmentally friendly and hostile water aqueous solutions

Phase Diagrams and Thermodynamic Modeling of Solutions


Phase Diagrams and Thermodynamic Modeling of Solutions
  • Author : Arthur D. Pelton
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2018-09-19
  • ISBN : 9780128016695
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Phase Diagrams and Thermodynamic Modeling of Solutions provides readers with an understanding of thermodynamics and phase equilibria that is required to make full and efficient use of these tools. The book systematically discusses phase diagrams of all types, the thermodynamics behind them, their calculations from thermodynamic databases, and the structural models of solutions used in the development of these databases. Featuring examples from a wide range of systems including metals, salts, ceramics, refractories, and concentrated aqueous solutions, Phase Diagrams and Thermodynamic Modeling of Solutions is a vital resource for researchers and developers in materials science, metallurgy, combustion and energy, corrosion engineering, environmental engineering, geology, glass technology, nuclear engineering, and other fields of inorganic chemical and materials science and engineering. Additionally, experts involved in developing thermodynamic databases will find a comprehensive reference text of current solution models. Presents a rigorous and complete development of thermodynamics for readers who already have a basic understanding of chemical thermodynamics Provides an in-depth understanding of phase equilibria Includes information that can be used as a text for graduate courses on thermodynamics and phase diagrams, or on solution modeling Covers several types of phase diagrams (paraequilibrium, solidus projections, first-melting projections, Scheil diagrams, enthalpy diagrams), and more

The Second Law of Thermodynamics


The Second Law of Thermodynamics
  • Author : Joseph Kestin
  • Publisher : Dowden Hutchinson and Ross
  • Release : 1976
  • ISBN : 0879332425
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Thermodynamic Modeling of Geologic Materials


Thermodynamic Modeling of Geologic Materials
  • Author : Ian S. E. Carmichael
  • Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
  • Release : 2018-12-17
  • ISBN : 9781501508950
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Volume 17 of Reviews in Mineralogy is based on a short course, entitled "Thermodynamic Modeling of Geological Materials: Minerals, Fluids amd Melts," October 22-25, 1987, at the Wickenburg Inn near Phoenix, Arizona. Contents: Thermodynamic Analysis of Phase Equilibria in Simple Mineral Systems Models of Crystalline solutions Thermodynamics of Multicomponent Systems Containing Several Solid Solutions Thermodynamic Model for Aqueous Solutions of Liquid-like Density Models of Mineral Solubility in Concentrated Brines with Application to Field Observations Calculation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Aqueous Species and the Solubilities of Minerals in Supercritical Electrolyte Solutions Igneous Fluids Ore Fluids: Magmatic to Supergene Thermodynamic Models of Molecular Fluids at the Elevated Pressures and Temperatures of Crustal Metamorphism Mineral Solubilities and Speciation in Supercritical Metamorphic Fluids Development of Models for Multicomponent Melts: Analysis of Synthetic Systems Modeling Magmatic Systems: Thermodynamic Relations Modeling Magmatic Systems: Petrologic Applications