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Spine Phenotypes


Spine Phenotypes
  • Author : Dino Samartzis
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-10
  • ISBN : 0128227788
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The era of personalized spine care has arrived. Within that, imaging and clinical phenotypes are key in establishing personalized algorithms for patient care. This is particularly important in developing novel diagnostics and therapeutics as well as predicting outcomes and establishing preventative measures for various spinal disorders. Spine Phenotypes is a comprehensive resource that outlines phenotype descriptions, their radiographic measurement and epidemiological classification and provides an in-depth discussion regarding spine pathology and its clinical relevance. Multi-authored, with multi-disciplinary contributions from world leaders in the field of imaging, spine research and clinical practice, each chapter is rich in visual depiction of imaging phenotypes, providing examples of some established phenotypic measurements with a range of normal and pathologic images. Spine Phenotypes will be a first of its kind reference for researchers, orthopedists, spine specialists and many more.

Atlas of Spinal Imaging Phenotypes


Atlas of Spinal Imaging Phenotypes
  • Author : Philip Louie
  • Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
  • Release : 2021-03-23
  • ISBN : 9780323761123
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Spine-related pain is the world’s leading disabling condition, affecting every population and a frequent reason for seeking medical consultation and obtaining imaging studies. Numerous spinal phenotypes (observations/traits) and their respective measurements performed on various spine imaging have been shown to directly correlate and predict clinical outcomes. Atlas of Spinal Imaging Phenotypes: Classifications and Radiographic Measurements is a comprehensive visual resource that highlights various spinal phenotypes on imaging, describes their clinical and pathophysiological relevance, and discusses and illustrates their respective measurement techniques and classifications. Helps readers better understanding spinal phenotypes and their imaging, and how today’s knowledge will facilitate new targeted drug discovery, novel diagnostics and biomarker discovery, and outcome predictions. Features step-by-step instructions on performing the radiographic measurements with examples of normal and pathologic images to demonstrate the various presentations. Presents clinical correlation of the phenotypes as well as the radiographic measurements with landmark references. Includes validated classification systems that complement the phenotypes and radiographic measurements. Complies the knowledge and expertise of Dr. Dino Samartzis, the preeminent global authority on spinal phenotypes who has discovered and proposed new phenotypes and classification schemes; Dr. Howard S. An, a leading expert in patient management and at the forefront of 3D imaging of various spinal phenotypes; and Dr. Philip Louie, a prolific surgeon who is involved in one of the largest machine learning initiatives of spinal phenotyping.

Atlas of Spinal Imaging


Atlas of Spinal Imaging
  • Author : Philip K. Louie, MD
  • Publisher :
  • Release : 2021-02
  • ISBN : 0323761119
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Spine-related pain is the world's leading disabling condition, affecting every population and a frequent reason for seeking medical consultation and obtaining imaging studies. Numerous spinal phenotypes (observations/traits) and their respective measurements performed on various spine imaging have been shown to directly correlate and predict clinical outcomes. Atlas of Spinal Imaging Phenotypes: Classifications and Radiographic Measurements is a comprehensive visual resource that highlights various spinal phenotypes on imaging, describes their clinical and pathophysiological relevance, and discusses and illustrates their respective measurement techniques and classifications. Helps readers better understanding spinal phenotypes and their imaging, and how today's knowledge will facilitate new targeted drug discovery, novel diagnostics and biomarker discovery, and outcome predictions. Features step-by-step instructions on performing the radiographic measurements with examples of normal and pathologic images to demonstrate the various presentations. Presents clinical correlation of the phenotypes as well as the radiographic measurements with landmark references. Includes validated classification systems that complement the phenotypes and radiographic measurements. Complies the knowledge and expertise of Dr. Dino Samartzis, the preeminent global authority on spinal phenotypes who has discovered and proposed new phenotypes and classification schemes; Dr. Howard S. An, a leading expert in patient management and at the forefront of 3D imaging of various spinal phenotypes; and Dr. Philip Louie, a prolific surgeon who is involved in one of the largest machine learning initiatives of spinal phenotyping.

Canadian Journal of Zoology


Canadian Journal of Zoology
  • Author :
  • Publisher :
  • Release : 2005
  • ISBN : WISC:89086931581
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Rescue of FXS Phenotypes in Fmr1 Knockout Mice by the Small Molecule P21 activated Kinase Inhibitor FRAX486


Rescue of FXS Phenotypes in Fmr1 Knockout Mice by the Small Molecule P21 activated Kinase Inhibitor FRAX486
  • Author : Bridget M. Dolan
  • Publisher :
  • Release : 2011
  • ISBN : OCLC:783793090
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Autism is a diverse and complex family of disorders, and its prevalence is on the rise: 1 in 110 children have autism. There is no effective treatment for the symptoms which often include language and communication deficits, repetitive behavior, intellectual disability, epilepsy, attention deficits, and hyperactivity. The quest for a cure is challenging due to the heterogeneity of the disorder, but also because more than 90% of cases of autism are idiopathic, meaning the cause is unknown. Fortunately, one cause of autism has been discovered: silencing of a single gene causes an autism-like disorder called Fragile X Syndrome (FXS). The knowledge of the genetic basis of FXS allowed for the development of a mouse model of autism. The fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse displays phenotypes similar to symptoms in the human condition - including hyperactivity, repetitive behaviors, and seizures. Humans and mice share not only behavioral expression of the disease, but also analogous abnormalities in the density and morphology of dendritic spines - the sites of connections between neurons and critical substrates for learning. Abnormal dendritic spines is a common feature in FXS, idiopathic autism, and intellectual disability. Thus, this neuroanatomical abnormality may contribute to disease symptoms and severity. Here we take a hypothesis-driven, mechanism-based approach to the search for an effective therapy for FXS. We hypothesize that a treatment that rescues the dendritic spine defect may also ameliorate behavioral symptoms. Thus, we targeted a protein that regulates spines through modulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics: p21-activated kinase (PAK). In a healthy brain, PAK and FMRP - the protein product of fmr1 - antagonize one another to regulate spine number and shape. Inhibition of PAK with a strategy utilizing mouse genetics reverses spine abnormalities as well as cognitive and behavioral symptoms in fmr1 KO mice, as we demonstrated in our previous publication. This discovery highlights PAK as a potential target for drug discovery research. In this thesis work, we build on this finding to test whether the small molecule FRAX486 - selected for its ability to inhibit PAK - can rescue behavioral, morphological, and physiological phenotypes in fmr1 KO mice. Our results demonstrate that seizures and behavioral abnormalities such as hyperactivity, repetitive movements, and habituation to a novel environment can all be rescued by FRAX486. Moreover, FRAX486 reverses spine phenotypes in adult mice, thereby supporting the hypothesis that a drug treatment which reverses the spine abnormalities can also treat neurological and behavioral symptoms.