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Urban Heat Island Modeling for Tropical Climates


Urban Heat Island Modeling for Tropical Climates
  • Author : Ansar Khan
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2020-11-17
  • ISBN : 9780128225585
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Urban Heat Island Modeling for Tropical Climates takes into account the different urban physics in tropical environments, presenting a way of UHI scaling for tropical cities. Topics include measuring, modeling and proper mitigation strategies, which account for the surface energy balance of tropics. Tropical cities are more susceptible to the effects of projected global warming because of conditions in tropical climates and the rapid growth of so many cities in this zone. The need for research on measuring, modeling and mitigation of UHI effects in tropical cities is of growing importance. This book walks through the basics of Urban Heat Islands, including causes, measurement and analysis then expands upon issues as well as the novel techniques that can be used to address issues specific to the region. Reviews topics related to understanding the fundamentals of modeling and impacts of urban heat islands Covers many techniques, from remote sensing, to numerical modeling and then applying them to urban climate studies in general, and in tropical cities Describes the scaling of urban heat islands based on long-term seasonal thermal parameters as feature-based classification systems using a probabilistic and fuzzy logic approach, unlike local climate zones (LCZs)

The Urban Heat Island


The Urban Heat Island
  • Author : Iain D. Stewart
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2021-05-28
  • ISBN : 9780128156902
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Urban Heat Island (UHI) is an area of growing interest for many people studying the urban environment and local/global climate change. The UHI has been scientifically studied for 200 years and, although it is an apparently simple phenomenon, there is considerable confusion around the different types of UHI and their assessment. The Urban Heat Island—A Guidebook provides simple instructions for measuring and analysing the phenomenon, as well as greater context for defining the UHI and the impacts it can have. Readers will be empowered to work within a set of guidelines that enable direct comparison of UHI effects across diverse settings, while informing a wide range of climate mitigation and adaptation programs to modify human behaviour and the built form. This opens the door to true global assessments of local climate change in cities. Urban planning and design strategies can then be evaluated for their effectiveness at mitigating these changes. Covers both on-surface and near-surface, or canopy, measurements and impacts of Urban Heat Islands (UHI) Provides a set of best practices and guidelines for UHI observation and analysis Includes both conceptual overviews and practical instructions for a wide range of uses

Climate Change Hazards and Adaptation Options


Climate Change  Hazards and Adaptation Options
  • Author : Walter Leal Filho
  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2020-02-14
  • ISBN : 9783030374259
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book addresses the issue of climate change risks and hazards holistically. Climate change adaptation aims at managing climate risks and hazards to an acceptable level, taking advantage of any positive opportunities that may arise. At the same time, developing suitable responses to hazards for communities and users of climate services is important in ensuring the success of adaptation measures. But despite this, knowledge about adaptation options, including possible actions that can be implemented to improve adaptation and reduce the impacts of climate change hazards, is still limited. Addressing this need, the book presents studies and research findings and offers a catalogue of potential adaptation options that can be explored. It also includes case studies providing illustrative and inspiring examples of how we can adapt to a changing climate.

Solar Energy at Urban Scale


Solar Energy at Urban Scale
  • Author : Benoit Beckers
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2013-03-04
  • ISBN : 9781118614365
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Increasing urbanization throughout the world, the depletion offossil fuels and concerns about global warming have transformed thecity into a physical problem of prime importance. This bookproposes a multi-disciplinary and systematic approach concerningspecialities as different as meteorology, geography, architectureand urban engineering systems, all surrounding the essentialproblem of solar radiation. It collects the points of view of 18 specialists from around theworld on the interaction between solar energy and constructions,combining territorial, urban and architectural scales to betterregulate energetic efficiency and light comfort for the sustainablecity. The main subjects covered are: measures and models of solarirradiance (satellite observations, territorial and urban groundmeasurements, sky models, satellite data and urban mock-up),radiative contribution to the urban climate (local heat balance,radiative-aerodynamics coupling, evapotranspiration, Urban HeatIsland), light and heat modeling (climate-based daylight modeling,geometrical models of the city, solar radiation modeling for urbanenvironments, thermal simulation methods and algorithms) and urbanplanning, with special considerations for solar potential, solarimpact and daylight rights in the temperate, northern and tropicalclimates, and the requirement of urban solar regulation. Contents 1. The Odyssey of Remote Sensing from Space: Half a Century ofSatellites for Earth Observations, Théo Pirard. 2. Territorial and Urban Measurements, Marius Paulescu and ViorelBadescu. 3. Sky Luminance Models, Matej Kobav and Grega Bizjak. 4. Satellite Images Applied to Surface Solar Radiation Estimation,Bella Espinar and Philippe Blanc. 5. Worldwide Aspects of Solar Radiation Impact, BenoitBeckers. 6. Local Energy Balance, Pierre Kastendeuch. 7. Evapotranspiration, Marjorie Musy. 8. Multiscale Daylight Modeling for Urban Environments, JohnMardaljevic and George Janes. 9. Geometrical Models of the City, Daniel G. Aliaga. 10. Radiative Simulation Methods, Pierre Beckers and BenoitBeckers. 11. Radiation Modeling Using the Finite Element Method, Tom vanEekelen. 12. Dense Cities in the Tropical Zone, Edward Ng. 13. Dense Cities in Temperate Climates: Solar and Daylight Rights,Guedi Capeluto. 14. Solar Potential and Solar Impact, Frédéric Monetteand Benoit Beckers. Appendix 1. Table of Europe’s Platforms (Micro- andMinisatellites) for Earth Observations, Théo Pirard. Appendix 2. Commercial Operators of Earth Observation (EO)Satellites (as of January 1, 2012), Théo Pirard. Appendix 3. Earth’s Annual Global Mean Energy Budget, BenoitBeckers.

Urban Heat Island Mitigation Strategies in an Arid Climate In Outdoor Thermal Comfort Reacheable


Urban Heat Island Mitigation Strategies in an Arid Climate  In Outdoor Thermal Comfort Reacheable
  • Author : Suaad Ridha
  • Publisher :
  • Release : 2017
  • ISBN : OCLC:1008569264
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Numerous studies over the past several decades focused on the effect of the Urban Heat Island. Initial efforts on understanding the factors affecting UHI contributed to proceed the appropriate solutions and mitigation strategies. Mitigation strategies comprise increase both urban albedo (reflectivity to solar radiation), and evapotranspiration. Albedo increases are obtained through high albedo roofing and paving technologies. An increase in evapotranspiration is achieved through a combination of decreasing the fraction of impervious surfaces and planting vegetation in urban areas. The outdoor thermal comfort is influenced by the perception and satisfaction of the pedestrians, especially in hot and arid climates. Consequently, this work focuses on the appropriate methods for reducing the Urban Heat Island and thus to enhance the pedestrians outdoor thermal comfort. However, there is limited research conducted on the outdoor thermal comfort in hot and arid climate. The studies on the mitigation the Urban Heat Island and the outdoor thermal comfort are almost non-existent for Baghdad city. Baghdad has a complex urban fabric with modern design constructions buildings, traditional and heritage houses. The climate in summer is hot, and summer months are considered the longest season with nearly 7 months of the year. This study focuses on investigating possible mitigation strategies to ensure how pedestrian comfort is affected by the constructions design choices comparing a traditional district to a modern one, and on how vegetation and shading patterns contribute to reducing the effect of UHI and improving the outdoor thermal comfort. Four different scenarios are designed to assess the role of vegetation elements such as trees, grass, and different shading patterns. The evaluation was performed on the hottest day in summer, the mean radiant temperature, specific humidity, air temperature, and wind speed distributions have been analyzed using ENVI-met software. Thermal comfort is assessed using the thermal indices the Physiological Equivalent Temperature PET and the Predicted Mean Vote PMV. Also, a proposal model is designed to evaluate the thermal comfort on the hottest day and the typical day in summer. The results revealed an improvement on thermal comfort in the typical day in summer. The study shows how the urban factors such as the aspect ratio, vegetation cover, shadings, and geometry of the canyon are crucial elements that urban planners and municipalities have to take into account, especially for new urban developments in hot, arid climate.