Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water


Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water
  • Author : M. N. V. Prasad
  • Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
  • Release : 2020-01-24
  • ISBN : 0081029772
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water: Detection and Treatment presents cutting-edge research on how to understand the procedures, processes and considerations for detecting and treating disinfection by-products from drinking water, swimming pool water, and wastewater. The book begins with an overview of the different groups of Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs), such as: Trihalomethanes (THM), Halo acetic acids, and Haloacetonitrile (HAN). This coverage is quickly followed by a clear and rigorous exposition of the latest methods and technologies for the characterization, occurrence, formation, transformation and removal of DBPs in drinking water. Other chapters focus on ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, electron spin resonance, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Researchers will find a valuable resource to a breath of topics for DBP detection and treatment, including various recent techniques, such as microfiltration, nanofiltration membrane and nanotechnology.

Disinfection By products in Drinking Water


Disinfection By products in Drinking Water
  • Author : K Clive Thompson,Simon Gillespie,Emma Goslan
  • Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
  • Release : 2015-09-29
  • ISBN : 1782622713
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Covering the latest developments in themes related to water disinfection by-products, this book brings the reader right up to date. Stemming from an international conference, contributions are from decision-makers, regulators and the relevant scientific community. Coverage includes emerging disinfection by-products, water treatment, water recycling, monitoring, regulation and health and toxicology aspects. It will be of interest to water companies, public health professionals, drinking water quality regulators, suppliers of laboratory and on-line monitoring equipment, analytical chemists, and academic and industry researchers working in the area of disinfection by-products.

Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water


Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water
  • Author : Yuefeng Xie
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2003-08-27
  • ISBN : 9780203486917
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The EPA has established regulations which classify four types of disinfection byproducts - TTHMs, haloacetic acids, bromate, and chlorite - and requires public water systems limit these byproducts to specific levels. Most of the information required to comply with these standards is either scattered throughout the literature or derived from confere

Disinfection By products in Drinking Water


Disinfection By products in Drinking Water
  • Author : Michael Fielding,Mike Fielding,Mike Farrimond
  • Publisher :
  • Release : 1999
  • ISBN :
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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It is 25 years since the discovery that potentially harmful chemical by-products are generated by the disinfection of drinking water. Since then, disinfection by-products (DBPs) have had a significant impact on drinking water standards, treatment processes and monitoring. Regulators and water suppliers must find a balance between the need to prevent microbial contamination, and the desire to control the levels of DBPs in the water we drink. Disinfection By-Products in Drinking Water: Current Issues brings together contributions from regulators, researchers and water suppliers from Europe and North America to discuss the current situation and identify the main issues associated with reaching a cost-effective balance between microbial and chemical risks. Overviews of the latest research are presented alongside case studies of practical approaches taken by water companies and regulators on both sides of the Atlantic. Contributions are grouped into sections covering: DBP formation and occurrence; advances in analysis and monitoring; standards and regulation; balancing chemical and microbial risk; and control methods for DBPs. A final chapter pulls these strands together to provide a view of the way forward. Disinfection By-Products in Drinking Water: Current Issues is a unique collection of the views of key people, and as such will be essential reading for all those with an interest in this complex problem.

Disinfection By products in Drinking Water


Disinfection By products in Drinking Water
  • Author : Tanju Karanfil,Stuart W. Krasner,Yuefeng Xie,Paul Westerhoff
  • Publisher : Amer Chemical Society
  • Release : 2008
  • ISBN :
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Since their discovery, disinfection by-products (DBPs) have become one of the major driving forces in drinking water regulations, research and water utility operations throughout the world. The list of DBPs that can occur in treated drinking waters has grown from a few trihalomethanes to a long list of halogenated and non-halogenated organic or inorganic compounds. This list is expected to continue to grow as the analytical techniques are improved, as more information on their toxicity is developed, and as more occurrence studies are conducted. This book documents the latest DBP research findings, including emerging issues and state-of-the-art studies. Specifically, papers on the occurrence, formation, control, and health effects of emerging (unregulated) halogenated (e.g., brominated) and nonhalogenated (e.g., nitrosamines) DBPs (e.g., emerging nitrogenous vs. regulated carbonaceous DBPs) are presented. In addition to the characterization and reactivity of natural organic matter to form DBPs, new studies on algal organic matter and treated wastewater as sources of DBPs and their precursors are discussed.

Emerging Organic Contaminants and Human Health


Emerging Organic Contaminants and Human Health
  • Author : Damia Barcelo
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2012-04-17
  • ISBN : 364228132X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This volume provides an overview of the occurrence and fate of emerging contaminants, discusses advanced chemical analysis methods, toxicological and ecotoxicological effects as well as human exposure. One focus is on pharmaceuticals, in particular antibiotics, and the problems associated with their increased use in hospitals. Other covered emerging contaminants occurring e.g. in food, water, air or soil include brominated flame retardants, polar pesticides, phthalates, phosphate esters, perfluorinated compounds, personal care products, musk fragrances, disinfection byproducts, illicit drugs, and nanomaterials. The chapters written by experts are a valuable source of information for a broad audience, such as analytical chemists, environmental chemists and engineers, toxicologists, ecotoxicologists and epidemiologists working already in this field as well as newcomers.

Drinking Water and Health Volume 7


Drinking Water and Health  Volume 7
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Life Sciences,Safe Drinking Water Committee
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release : 1987-02-01
  • ISBN : 0309037417
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Chlorination in various forms has been the predominant method of drinking water disinfection in the United States for more than 70 years. The seventh volume of the Drinking Water and Health series addresses current methods of drinking water disinfection and compares standard chlorination techniques with alternative methods. Currently used techniques are discussed in terms of their chemical activity, and their efficacy against waterborne pathogens, including bacteria, cysts, and viruses, is compared. Charts, tables, graphs, and case studies are used to analyze the effectiveness of chlorination, chloramination, and ozonation as disinfectant processes and to compare these methods for their production of toxic by-products. Epidemiological case studies on the toxicological effects of chemical by-products in drinking water are also presented.

Disinfection By Products in Water TreatmentThe Chemistry of Their Formation and Control


Disinfection By Products in Water TreatmentThe Chemistry of Their Formation and Control
  • Author : Roger A. Minear,Gary Amy
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 1995-12-18
  • ISBN : 9781566701365
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Disinfection By-Products in Water Treatment describes new government regulations related to disinfection by-products. It explains the formation of microorganism by-products during water treatment and the methods employed to control them. The book includes several chapters on chlorine by-products and discusses techniques for the removal of chloroform from drinking water. It also describes gamma radiation techniques for removing microorganic by-product precursors from natural waters and the removal of bromate from drinking water.

Drinking Water Disinfection Techniques


Drinking Water Disinfection Techniques
  • Author : Jyoti Kishen Kumar,Aniruddha Bhalchandra Pandit
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2012-12-13
  • ISBN : 1439877408
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Water is our natural heritage, our miracle of life. However, our increasingly technological society has become indifferent to water. Far from being pure, modern drinking water around the world contains many undesirable chemical and bacterial contaminants. The existing techniques employed for the disinfection of water are either energy-intensive or have by-products harmful to human health. Drinking Water Disinfection Techniques reviews these processes and explores novel technologies for water disinfection synergistic with existing techniques. The book covers a wide audience and gives a comprehensive review of various physical, chemical, and hybrid techniques commonly used for the disinfection of water as well as newer emerging technologies in terms of their mode of action, scale of operation, efficacy, merits, and demerits. It broadly addresses the issues related to water disinfection in three sections: Disinfection techniques—chemical, physical, and hybrid (combination)—and their likely scale of operation efficacy Disinfection by-product as a function of water source and the type of treatment Emerging and novel techniques, including new work on cavitation, an economical, energy-efficient, and simple alternative to the conventional methods of disinfection Drinking Water Disinfection Techniques effectively combines the chemical, physical, biological, and engineering principles of water disinfection in one text. Discussing both conventional and novel techniques used for disinfection and the economics involved, the book gives a comprehensive review of various physical, chemical, and hybrid techniques used for disinfection to create potable water.

Disinfection By products


Disinfection By products
  • Author : Steve E. Hrudey,Jeffrey W. A. Charrois
  • Publisher : IWA Publishing
  • Release : 2012
  • ISBN : 1843395193
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Disinfection By-Products and Human Health provides drinking water professionals with a pragmatic assessment of the current evidence and emerging issues concerning DBPs and public health.

Disinfection


Disinfection
  • Author : Sahra Kırmusaoğlu
  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2018-11-14
  • ISBN : 1789844746
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Disinfection is a method used to destroy most microbial forms, especially vegetative pathogens, by using physical and chemical procedures such as chlorination, UV radiation, boiling, vapor, etc. Biotic surfaces such as skin and abiotic surfaces such as contaminated medical devices and kitchen equipment exposed to cross contamination must be disinfected. Especially, inadequate disinfection of water can be fatal and cause life-threatening outbreaks. For this reason, water must be disinfected adequately by appropriate methods. There are several factors that affect the efficacy of disinfection against pathogens, such as capacity of biofilm and spore formation, having antibiotic resistance, etc. It is hard to destroy bacterial biofilms, bacterial spores, and resistant microorganisms. Some bacterial spores and resistant microorganisms can withstand disinfectants, so adequate disinfection must be done by appropriate methods. The aim of this book is to summarize disinfection, disinfection methods, and chemical analysis of by-products by providing up-to-date topics.

Formation and Control of Disinfection By products in Drinking Water


Formation and Control of Disinfection By products in Drinking Water
  • Author : Philip C. Singer
  • Publisher : Amer Water Works Assn
  • Release : 1999
  • ISBN :
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Written by more than 30 DBP experts, this technical and managerial reference tool provides essential background and addresses recent activities of the EPA and environmental consultants. It answers important questions, such as how to balance microbial and chemical risks, and includes information on new regulation and treatment costs.

Controlling disinfection byproducts and microbial contaminants in drinking water


Controlling disinfection byproducts and microbial contaminants in drinking water
  • Author : N.A
  • Publisher : DIANE Publishing
  • Release :
  • ISBN : 142890073X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Analysis and Formation of Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water


Analysis and Formation of Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water
  • Author : Tarek Manasfi
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2021-04-14
  • ISBN : 0444643435
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This volume presents recent advances in the identification and quantification of inorganic and organic disinfection by-products (DPBs) resulting from the unwanted reactions between chemical disinfectant (chlorine, dioxide chlorine, chloramine, ozone) and inorganic and/or organic matter present in water, during drinking or wastewater treatment. DBPs target and non-target analyses are reviewed according to chemical treatment applied and to the origin of water treated (natural surface and or underground water, saline water, wastewater). The book begins with a review on the most recent non-target approaches and strategies able to characterize DBP mixtures and discover new DBPs by use of low, high, and ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry, followed by a second chapter dedicated to the analysis of inorganic chloramines in waters by use of on-site and/or lab-analytical methods (and specific attention to standard chloramines preparation). The third chapter provides an overview of the current knowledge for the mechanisms of dioxide chlorine oxidation and byproduct formation, as the fourth one presents fundamental and practical aspects regarding ozonation processes in drinking water treatment. The fifth chapter focuses on the reactivity of halides ions with common oxidants and natural organic matter (mechanisms and kinetics) and on the increase of toxicity in so-treated waters, while proposing solutions to mitigate their occurrences. Finally, the last chapter is dedicated to the chemical risk mitigations of water reuse by use of advanced water treatment trains (mainly based on membrane technologies). Researchers will find a valuable resource to a breath of topics for DBP formation, identification and quantification, and for DPB mitigation.

Drinking Water Quality and Contaminants Guidebook


Drinking Water Quality and Contaminants Guidebook
  • Author : Joseph Cotruvo
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2018-09-18
  • ISBN : 1351110454
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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K347191 BCC Drinking water quality is a sensitive issue, and the public is constantly barraged by contaminant reports now routinely at parts-per-trillion. Protection from microbial disease risks from drinking water must always be predominant; trace chemicals usually fall farther down the scale of possible health risks, but even negligible detections raise public concerns. Drinking Water Quality and Contaminants Guidebook presents information and guidance on drinking water quality and regulatory issues reflecting experiences and judgments from the author’s more than 43 years of extensive experience. It contains digested comprehensive information on important chemical, microbial, and radionuclide water contaminants, and discussions of several drinking water-related policy issues. Information is presented for long-standing regulated contaminants and chemicals of emerging concern in understandable terms for professionals and non-experts alike. Dossiers contain readily accessed information on sources, physical and chemical properties, toxicity, analytical methodology, water treatment technology, regulations and health advisories, and also include World Health Organization Guidelines. Aesthetic and acceptance factors such as water hardness and salinity that influence public perceptions of drinking water quality are also addressed. Features: Compiles and interprets essential information on numerous key chemical, microbial, and radionuclide water contaminants Provides standardized entries for each contaminant, including occurrence, health, analytical, water treatment, regulations, and World Health Organization guidance and recommendations with source citations Examines many water-related topics including fracking, potable water reuse, desalination, boil water notices, bottled water, foodborne and waterborne disease, and public perceptions about public drinking water quality Provides essential information and the basis for management of many long-standing contaminants such as lead, mercury, disinfection by-products, E. coli, and also emerging issues such as legionella, glyphosate, BPA, and more

Ozone in Water Treatment


Ozone in Water Treatment
  • Author : Bruno Langlais,David A. Reckhow,Deborah R. Brink
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2019-07-16
  • ISBN : 1351426133
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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With the advent of the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986, many water utilities are reexamining their water treatment practices. Upcoming new regulations on disinfection and on disinfection by-products, in particular, are the primary driving forces for the big interest in ozone. It appears that ozone, with its strong disinfection capabilities, and apparently lower levels of disinfection by-products (compared to other disinfectants), may be the oxidant/disinfectant of choice. Many utilities currently using chlorine for oxidation may need to switch due to chlorine by-product concerns. Utilities using chloramines may need to use ozone to meet CT requirements. This book, prepared by 35 international experts, includes current technology on the design, operation, and control of the ozone process within a drinking water plant. It combines almost 100 years of European ozone design and operating experience with North American design/operations experience and the North American regulatory and utility operational environment. Topics covered include ozone chemistry, toxicology, design consideration, engineering aspects, design of retrofit systems, and the operation and economics of ozone technology. The book contains a "how to" section on ozone treatability studies, which explains what information can be learned using treatability studies, at what scale (bench, pilot, or demonstration plant), and how this information can be used to design full-scale systems. It also includes valuable tips regarding important operating practices, as well as guidance on retrofits and the unique issues involved with retrofitting the ozone process. With ozone being one of the hottest areas of interest in drinking water, this book will prove essential to all water utilities, design engineers, regulators, and plant managers and supervisors.

Safe Drinking Water Act 1989


Safe Drinking Water Act  1989
  • Author : Edward J. Calabrese
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2017-11-22
  • ISBN : 1351357956
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This new book covers drinking water regulations such as disinfectant by-products, synthetic organics, inorganic chemicals, microbiological contaminants, volatile organic chemicals, radionuclides, fluoride, toxicological approaches to setting new national drinking water regulations, and trihalomethanes. In addition, organic and inorganic compounds scheduled to be regulated in 1989 and new candidates for the 1990s regulations are detailed.

Ozone Reaction Kinetics for Water and Wastewater Systems


Ozone Reaction Kinetics for Water and Wastewater Systems
  • Author : Fernando J. Beltran
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2003-12-29
  • ISBN : 9780203509173
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Interest in ozonation for drinking water and wastewater treatment has soared in recent years due to ozone's potency as a disinfectant, and the increasing need to control disinfection byproducts that arise from the chlorination of water and wastewater. Ozone Reaction Kinetics for Water and Wastewater Systems is a comprehensive reference that

Applications of Advanced Oxidation Processes AOPs in Drinking Water Treatment


Applications of Advanced Oxidation Processes  AOPs  in Drinking Water Treatment
  • Author : Antonio Gil,Luis Alejandro Galeano,Miguel Ángel Vicente
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2018-07-03
  • ISBN : 3319768824
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This volume reviews the drinking water treatments in which AOPs display a high application potential. Firstly it reveals the typical supply sources and limitations of conventional technologies and critically reviews natural organic matter characterization and removal techniques, focusing mainly on AOP treatments. It then explores using AOPs for simultaneous inactivation/disinfection of several types of microorganisms, including highly resistant Cryptosporidium protozoa. Lastly, it discusses relevant miscellaneous topics, like the most promising AOP solid catalysts, the regime change of Fenton-like processes toward continuous reactors, the application of chemometrics for process optimization, the impact on disinfection byproducts and the tracing of toxicity during AOP treatments. This work is a useful reference for researchers and students involved in water technologies, including analytical and environmental chemistry, chemical and environmental engineering, toxicology, biotechnology, and related fields. It is intended to encourage industrial and public-health scientists and decision-makers to accelerate the application of AOPs as technological alternatives for the improvement of drinking water treatment plants.

Natural Organic Matter and Disinfection By products Characterization and Control in Drinking Water


Natural Organic Matter and Disinfection By products Characterization and Control in Drinking Water
  • Author : Sylvia E. Barrett,Stuart W. Krasner,Gary L. Amy
  • Publisher : Amer Chemical Society
  • Release : 2000
  • ISBN :
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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There are many by-products of water disinfection that are still not fully understood and can be potentially harmful. In this volume all the current research in this area is discussed, along with an examination of the role of NOM (natural organic matter) and its relationship to DBP (disinfection by-product) formation and control in drinking water. Understanding the relationship of NOM to DBP may well lead to new techniques for analyzing and treating water and enable reasonable choices to be made for source-water protection, treatment plant process optimization, and distribution system operation to control DBP's. This volume emphasizes the characterization and reactivity of polar natural organic matter. It examines analytical methods which better characterize NOM and determines some of the polar and nonvolatile DBP forms. It presents innovative new methods, sich as capillary electrophoresis for haloacetic aceids and LC/MS for the identification of polar dinking water DBPs.