Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water


Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water
  • Author : M. N. V. Prasad
  • Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
  • Release : 2020-01-24
  • ISBN : 0081029772
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water: Detection and Treatment presents cutting-edge research on how to understand the procedures, processes and considerations for detecting and treating disinfection by-products from drinking water, swimming pool water, and wastewater. The book begins with an overview of the different groups of Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs), such as: Trihalomethanes (THM), Halo acetic acids, and Haloacetonitrile (HAN). This coverage is quickly followed by a clear and rigorous exposition of the latest methods and technologies for the characterization, occurrence, formation, transformation and removal of DBPs in drinking water. Other chapters focus on ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, electron spin resonance, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Researchers will find a valuable resource to a breath of topics for DBP detection and treatment, including various recent techniques, such as microfiltration, nanofiltration membrane and nanotechnology.

Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water


Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water
  • Author : Yuefeng Xie
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2003-08-27
  • ISBN : 9780203486917
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The EPA has established regulations which classify four types of disinfection byproducts - TTHMs, haloacetic acids, bromate, and chlorite - and requires public water systems limit these byproducts to specific levels. Most of the information required to comply with these standards is either scattered throughout the literature or derived from confere

Disinfection By products in Drinking Water


Disinfection By products in Drinking Water
  • Author : K. Clive Thompson,Simon Gillespie,Emma H. Goslan
  • Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
  • Release :
  • ISBN : 1782620885
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Disinfection By products in Drinking Water


Disinfection By products in Drinking Water
  • Author : Michael Fielding,Mike Fielding,Mike Farrimond
  • Publisher :
  • Release : 1999
  • ISBN :
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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It is 25 years since the discovery that potentially harmful chemical by-products are generated by the disinfection of drinking water. Since then, disinfection by-products (DBPs) have had a significant impact on drinking water standards, treatment processes and monitoring. Regulators and water suppliers must find a balance between the need to prevent microbial contamination, and the desire to control the levels of DBPs in the water we drink. Disinfection By-Products in Drinking Water: Current Issues brings together contributions from regulators, researchers and water suppliers from Europe and North America to discuss the current situation and identify the main issues associated with reaching a cost-effective balance between microbial and chemical risks. Overviews of the latest research are presented alongside case studies of practical approaches taken by water companies and regulators on both sides of the Atlantic. Contributions are grouped into sections covering: DBP formation and occurrence; advances in analysis and monitoring; standards and regulation; balancing chemical and microbial risk; and control methods for DBPs. A final chapter pulls these strands together to provide a view of the way forward. Disinfection By-Products in Drinking Water: Current Issues is a unique collection of the views of key people, and as such will be essential reading for all those with an interest in this complex problem.

Emerging Organic Contaminants and Human Health


Emerging Organic Contaminants and Human Health
  • Author : Damia Barcelo
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2012-04-17
  • ISBN : 364228132X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This volume provides an overview of the occurrence and fate of emerging contaminants, discusses advanced chemical analysis methods, toxicological and ecotoxicological effects as well as human exposure. One focus is on pharmaceuticals, in particular antibiotics, and the problems associated with their increased use in hospitals. Other covered emerging contaminants occurring e.g. in food, water, air or soil include brominated flame retardants, polar pesticides, phthalates, phosphate esters, perfluorinated compounds, personal care products, musk fragrances, disinfection byproducts, illicit drugs, and nanomaterials. The chapters written by experts are a valuable source of information for a broad audience, such as analytical chemists, environmental chemists and engineers, toxicologists, ecotoxicologists and epidemiologists working already in this field as well as newcomers.

Drinking Water and Health Volume 7


Drinking Water and Health  Volume 7
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Life Sciences,Safe Drinking Water Committee
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release : 1987-02-01
  • ISBN : 0309037417
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Chlorination in various forms has been the predominant method of drinking water disinfection in the United States for more than 70 years. The seventh volume of the Drinking Water and Health series addresses current methods of drinking water disinfection and compares standard chlorination techniques with alternative methods. Currently used techniques are discussed in terms of their chemical activity, and their efficacy against waterborne pathogens, including bacteria, cysts, and viruses, is compared. Charts, tables, graphs, and case studies are used to analyze the effectiveness of chlorination, chloramination, and ozonation as disinfectant processes and to compare these methods for their production of toxic by-products. Epidemiological case studies on the toxicological effects of chemical by-products in drinking water are also presented.

Disinfection By Products in Water TreatmentThe Chemistry of Their Formation and Control


Disinfection By Products in Water TreatmentThe Chemistry of Their Formation and Control
  • Author : Roger A. Minear,Gary Amy
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 1995-12-18
  • ISBN : 9781566701365
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Disinfection By-Products in Water Treatment describes new government regulations related to disinfection by-products. It explains the formation of microorganism by-products during water treatment and the methods employed to control them. The book includes several chapters on chlorine by-products and discusses techniques for the removal of chloroform from drinking water. It also describes gamma radiation techniques for removing microorganic by-product precursors from natural waters and the removal of bromate from drinking water.

Disinfection By products in Drinking Water


Disinfection By products in Drinking Water
  • Author : Tanju Karanfil,Stuart W. Krasner,Yuefeng Xie,Paul Westerhoff
  • Publisher : Amer Chemical Society
  • Release : 2008
  • ISBN :
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Since their discovery, disinfection by-products (DBPs) have become one of the major driving forces in drinking water regulations, research and water utility operations throughout the world. The list of DBPs that can occur in treated drinking waters has grown from a few trihalomethanes to a long list of halogenated and non-halogenated organic or inorganic compounds. This list is expected to continue to grow as the analytical techniques are improved, as more information on their toxicity is developed, and as more occurrence studies are conducted. This book documents the latest DBP research findings, including emerging issues and state-of-the-art studies. Specifically, papers on the occurrence, formation, control, and health effects of emerging (unregulated) halogenated (e.g., brominated) and nonhalogenated (e.g., nitrosamines) DBPs (e.g., emerging nitrogenous vs. regulated carbonaceous DBPs) are presented. In addition to the characterization and reactivity of natural organic matter to form DBPs, new studies on algal organic matter and treated wastewater as sources of DBPs and their precursors are discussed.

Analysis and Formation of Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water


Analysis and Formation of Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water
  • Author : N.A
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2021-03-26
  • ISBN : 0444643443
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Drinking water disinfection has markedly reduced diseases causes by waterborne pathogenic microorganisms. However, an unintended consequence of disinfection and/or oxidation processes is the generation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) which are formed from the reactions of disinfectants/oxidants with water matrix components. This volume of the Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry Handbook presents recent advances about the formation, identification, and quantification of inorganic and organic DBPs during oxidative processes. The book begins with a first chapter reviewing the most recent non-targeted screening approaches and workflows to characterize DBPs using low-, high-, and ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry. The second chapter discusses the analysis of inorganic chloramines in waters using on-site and/or in-lab analytical methods. The third chapter provides an overview of the current knowledge about the mechanisms of chlorine dioxide reactions and byproducts formation. The fourth chapter presents some fundamental and practical aspects about ozonation processes in water treatment and provides an overview about ozone reaction mechanisms and byproducts formation. The fifth chapter focuses on the reactivity of halide ions, particularly bromide and iodide, with common oxidants and the role they play in determining the speciation of DBPs in treated waters. The chapter also presents strategies to mitigate the formation of DBPs during oxidation processes. Finally, the last chapter tackles the topic of DBPs formation during potable water reuse. It discusses the formation of DBPs of major concern in both memebrane-based and non-membrane-based potable water reuse treatment schemes. Researchers, water treatment specialists, and regulators will find in this book a valuable and compact resource on several key topics regarding the formation, identification, quantification, and mitigation of DBPs. Identification and quantification of known and unknown DBPs Formation of DBPs during different disinfection/oxidation processes DBPs of concern in new technologies and/or new applications of existing technologies in water treatment

Disinfection By products


Disinfection By products
  • Author : Steve E. Hrudey,Jeffrey W. A. Charrois
  • Publisher : IWA Publishing
  • Release : 2012
  • ISBN : 1843395193
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Disinfection By-Products and Human Health provides drinking water professionals with a pragmatic assessment of the current evidence and emerging issues concerning DBPs and public health.

Analysis and Formation of Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water


Analysis and Formation of Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water
  • Author : Tarek Manasfi
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2021-04-14
  • ISBN : 0444643435
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This volume presents recent advances in the identification and quantification of inorganic and organic disinfection by-products (DPBs) resulting from the unwanted reactions between chemical disinfectant (chlorine, dioxide chlorine, chloramine, ozone) and inorganic and/or organic matter present in water, during drinking or wastewater treatment. DBPs target and non-target analyses are reviewed according to chemical treatment applied and to the origin of water treated (natural surface and or underground water, saline water, wastewater). The book begins with a review on the most recent non-target approaches and strategies able to characterize DBP mixtures and discover new DBPs by use of low, high, and ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry, followed by a second chapter dedicated to the analysis of inorganic chloramines in waters by use of on-site and/or lab-analytical methods (and specific attention to standard chloramines preparation). The third chapter provides an overview of the current knowledge for the mechanisms of dioxide chlorine oxidation and byproduct formation, as the fourth one presents fundamental and practical aspects regarding ozonation processes in drinking water treatment. The fifth chapter focuses on the reactivity of halides ions with common oxidants and natural organic matter (mechanisms and kinetics) and on the increase of toxicity in so-treated waters, while proposing solutions to mitigate their occurrences. Finally, the last chapter is dedicated to the chemical risk mitigations of water reuse by use of advanced water treatment trains (mainly based on membrane technologies). Researchers will find a valuable resource to a breath of topics for DBP formation, identification and quantification, and for DPB mitigation.

Controlling disinfection byproducts and microbial contaminants in drinking water


Controlling disinfection byproducts and microbial contaminants in drinking water
  • Author : N.A
  • Publisher : DIANE Publishing
  • Release :
  • ISBN : 142890073X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Disinfection


Disinfection
  • Author : Sahra Kırmusaoğlu
  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2018-11-14
  • ISBN : 1789844746
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Disinfection is a method used to destroy most microbial forms, especially vegetative pathogens, by using physical and chemical procedures such as chlorination, UV radiation, boiling, vapor, etc. Biotic surfaces such as skin and abiotic surfaces such as contaminated medical devices and kitchen equipment exposed to cross contamination must be disinfected. Especially, inadequate disinfection of water can be fatal and cause life-threatening outbreaks. For this reason, water must be disinfected adequately by appropriate methods. There are several factors that affect the efficacy of disinfection against pathogens, such as capacity of biofilm and spore formation, having antibiotic resistance, etc. It is hard to destroy bacterial biofilms, bacterial spores, and resistant microorganisms. Some bacterial spores and resistant microorganisms can withstand disinfectants, so adequate disinfection must be done by appropriate methods. The aim of this book is to summarize disinfection, disinfection methods, and chemical analysis of by-products by providing up-to-date topics.

Formation and Control of Disinfection By products in Drinking Water


Formation and Control of Disinfection By products in Drinking Water
  • Author : Philip C. Singer
  • Publisher : Amer Water Works Assn
  • Release : 1999
  • ISBN :
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Written by more than 30 DBP experts, this technical and managerial reference tool provides essential background and addresses recent activities of the EPA and environmental consultants. It answers important questions, such as how to balance microbial and chemical risks, and includes information on new regulation and treatment costs.

Nitrification Prevention and Control in Drinking Water


Nitrification Prevention and Control in Drinking Water
  • Author : American Water Works Association
  • Publisher : Amer Water Works Assn
  • Release : 2013
  • ISBN : 9781583219355
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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First edition published as: Fundamentals and control of nitrification in chloraminated drinking water distribution systems, copyrighted in 2006.

Applications of Advanced Oxidation Processes AOPs in Drinking Water Treatment


Applications of Advanced Oxidation Processes  AOPs  in Drinking Water Treatment
  • Author : Antonio Gil,Luis Alejandro Galeano,Miguel Ángel Vicente
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2018-07-03
  • ISBN : 3319768824
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This volume reviews the drinking water treatments in which AOPs display a high application potential. Firstly it reveals the typical supply sources and limitations of conventional technologies and critically reviews natural organic matter characterization and removal techniques, focusing mainly on AOP treatments. It then explores using AOPs for simultaneous inactivation/disinfection of several types of microorganisms, including highly resistant Cryptosporidium protozoa. Lastly, it discusses relevant miscellaneous topics, like the most promising AOP solid catalysts, the regime change of Fenton-like processes toward continuous reactors, the application of chemometrics for process optimization, the impact on disinfection byproducts and the tracing of toxicity during AOP treatments. This work is a useful reference for researchers and students involved in water technologies, including analytical and environmental chemistry, chemical and environmental engineering, toxicology, biotechnology, and related fields. It is intended to encourage industrial and public-health scientists and decision-makers to accelerate the application of AOPs as technological alternatives for the improvement of drinking water treatment plants.

Ozone Reaction Kinetics for Water and Wastewater Systems


Ozone Reaction Kinetics for Water and Wastewater Systems
  • Author : Fernando J. Beltran
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2003-12-29
  • ISBN : 9780203509173
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Interest in ozonation for drinking water and wastewater treatment has soared in recent years due to ozone's potency as a disinfectant, and the increasing need to control disinfection byproducts that arise from the chlorination of water and wastewater. Ozone Reaction Kinetics for Water and Wastewater Systems is a comprehensive reference that

Drinking Water Disinfection Techniques


Drinking Water Disinfection Techniques
  • Author : Jyoti Kishen Kumar,Aniruddha Bhalchandra Pandit
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2012-12-13
  • ISBN : 1439877416
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Water is our natural heritage, our miracle of life. However, our increasingly technological society has become indifferent to water. Far from being pure, modern drinking water around the world contains many undesirable chemical and bacterial contaminants. The existing techniques employed for the disinfection of water are either energy-intensive or

Ultraviolet Light in Water and Wastewater Sanitation 2002


Ultraviolet Light in Water and Wastewater Sanitation  2002
  • Author : Willy J. Masschelein,Rip G. Rice
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2017-11-22
  • ISBN : 1351355708
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Several general books are available on ultraviolet light and its applications. However, this is the first comprehensive monograph that deals with its application to water and wastewater treatment. There is a rapidly growing interest in using UV light in water sanitation due to the increased knowledge of the potential health and environmental impacts of disinfection byproducts. Ultraviolet Light in Water and Wastewater Sanitation integrates the fundamental physics applicable to water and wastewater sanitation, the engineering aspects, and the practical experience in the field. The text analyzes the concerns associated with this application of UV light and brings together comprehensive information on the presently available UV technologies applicable to water and wastewater treatment including: lamp technologies, criteria of evaluation and choice of technology; fundamental principles; performance criteria for disinfection; design criteria and methods; synergistic use of UV and oxidants (advanced oxidation); and functional requirements and potential advantages and drawbacks of the technique. Ultraviolet Light in Water and Wastewater Sanitation is the only treatise currently available combining fundamental knowledge, recommendations for design, evaluations of performance, and future prospects for this application. Water and wastewater treatment professionals, water utility employees, governmental regulators, and chemists will find this book an essential and unique reference for a technology which has received growing regulatory acceptance.

Protection of Public Health from Microbial and Chemical Hazards in Swimming Pool Environments


Protection of Public Health from Microbial and Chemical Hazards in Swimming Pool Environments
  • Author : Yuli Ekowati
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2019-03-29
  • ISBN : 1000001814
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This thesis describes the occurrence of microbial and chemical contaminants in swimming pools and the investigation of an alternative disinfection technology, UVOX Redox® that could reduce reliance on chlorine and the formation of chlorinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in swimming pools. This technology was effective in inactivation of chlorine resistant microorganisms, represented by Bacillus subtilis spores, and in combination with chlorine generated lower concentrations of chlorinated DBPs compared to chlorination alone. It enhanced the removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), which were frequently present in indoor, outdoor and spa pools. Carbamazepine and 1H-benzotriazole were the most frequently detected PPCPs, while hydrochlorothiazide and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor were detected at the highest concentration. An investigation of seven different swimming pool facilities showed that clinically relevant fungi were omnipresent. Floors at the sites where the pool visitors converge, such as the exit leading to shower rooms, showed the highest fungal concentrations. The distribution of fungi inside the swimming pool facilities highlighted potential transmission pathways and a possible risk of fungal infections. Future swimming pool water guidance should include raising awareness among swimmers, pool operators and managers about hygienic behaviour and better hygiene measures, and application of alternative disinfection technologies such as UVOX. Key features: Identifies clinically relevant fungi in swimming pool environments Identifies potential transmission pathways of clinically relevant fungi in indoor swimming pools Highlights the occurrence of PPCPs in different type of pools and their relation with pool water treatment Assesses an alternative disinfection technology for swimming pool water treatment.