Theoretical and Applied Aspects of Biomass Torrefaction


Theoretical and Applied Aspects of Biomass Torrefaction
  • Author : Stephen Gent,Michael Twedt,Christina Gerometta,Evan Almberg
  • Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
  • Release : 2017-06-16
  • ISBN : 0128095172
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
Get Book

Theoretical and Applied Aspects of Biomass Torrefaction: For Biofuels and Value-Added Products presents a firm foundation of torrefaction technologies and their economic and sustainability aspects. It offers a theoretical background in the underlying principles of torrefaction reactions, including thermodynamics, chemical reactions, process modeling, end-products, and value-added products such as biochar and torr-gas. It also provides an overview of best practices in torrefaction systems, reactor design and scale-up, and compares torrefaction with other thermochemical processing technologies. The authors discuss feedstock availability for a variety of biomass types, such as agricultural residues, woody residues, energy crops and municipal solid waste. They also examine logistics and markets for torrefied products, which includes their use in co-firing and combined heat and power generation, as well as emissions and other environmental aspects. This balanced and thorough approach to the subject matter makes this an excellent resource for engineers, researchers, and graduate students in the field of biomass conversion, especially with background in energy engineering, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, environmental engineering, biological engineering, and agriculture. Offers a comprehensive overview of torrefaction, balancing theoretical and applied perspectives of torrefaction technologies from a holistic perspective Examines economic and sustainability aspects, including logistics, markets, feedstock, and emissions Presents a variety of relevant, real-world examples that underscore the production and utilization of torrefied material Offers a balanced and thorough approach to the subject, making it an excellent resource for engineers, researchers, and graduate students in the field of biomass conversion

Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis


Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis
  • Author : Prabir Basu
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2010-07-19
  • ISBN : 9780080961620
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
Get Book

This book offers comprehensive coverage of the design, analysis, and operational aspects of biomass gasification, the key technology enabling the production of biofuels from all viable sources--some examples being sugar cane and switchgrass. This versatile resource not only explains the basic principles of energy conversion systems, but also provides valuable insight into the design of biomass gasifiers. The author provides many worked out design problems, step-by-step design procedures and real data on commercially operating systems. After fossil fuels, biomass is the most widely used fuel in the world. Biomass resources show a considerable potential in the long term if residues are properly handled and dedicated energy crops are grown. Includes step-by-step design procedures and case studies for Biomass Gasification Provides worked process flow diagrams for gasifier design. Covers integration with other technologies (e.g. gas turbine, engine, fuel cells)

Byproducts Waste Biomass and Products to form Green Diesel and Biocrude Oils


Byproducts  Waste Biomass and Products to form Green Diesel and Biocrude Oils
  • Author : Brajendra K. Sharma,Kirtika Kohli
  • Publisher : MDPI
  • Release : 2020-12-11
  • ISBN : 3039435175
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
Get Book

This book provides a collection of research and review articles useful for researchers, engineers, students and industry experts in the bioenergy field. The practical and valuable information can be utilized for developing and implementing renewable energy projects, selecting different waste feedstocks, technologies, and products. A detailed insight into advanced technologies such as hydrothermal liquefaction, torrefaction, and supercritical CO2 extraction for making sustainable biofuels and chemicals is provided. A case study on food waste-to-energy valorization processes in Latin America provides experts’ insights to promote a circular economy.

Lignocellulosic Biorefining Technologies


Lignocellulosic Biorefining Technologies
  • Author : Avinash P. Ingle,Anuj Kumar Chandel,Silvio Silverio da Silva
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2020-03-02
  • ISBN : 111956882X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
Get Book

A text to the advances and development of novel technologies in the production of high-value products from economically viable raw materials Lignocellulosic Biorefining Technologiesis an essential guide to the most recent advances and developments of novel technologies in the production of various high-value products from economically viable raw materials. Written by a team of experts on the topic, the book covers important topics specifically on production of economical and sustainable products such as various biofuels, organic acids, enzymes, biopigments, biosurfactants, etc. The book highlights the important aspects of lignocellulosic biorefining including structure, function, and chemical composition of the plant cell wall and reviews the details about the various components present in the lignocellulosic biomass and their characterizations. The authors explore the various approaches available for processing lignocellulosic biomass into second generation sugars and focus on the possibilities of utilization of lignocellulosic feedstocks for the production of biofuels and biochemicals. Each chapter includes a range of clear, informative tables and figures, and contains relevant references of published articles. This important text: Provides cutting-edge information on the recent developments in lignocellulose biorefinery Reviews production of various economically important and sustainable products, such as biofuels, organic acids, biopigments, and biosurfactants Highlights several broad-ranging areas of recent advances in the utilization of a variety of lignocellulosic feedstocks Provides a valuable, authoritative reference for anyone interested in the topic Written for post-graduate students and researchers in disciplines such as biotechnology, bioengineering, forestry, agriculture, and chemical industry, Lignocellulosic Biorefining Technologies is an authoritative and updated guide to the knowledge about various biorefining technologies.

Coal in the 21st Century


Coal in the 21st Century
  • Author : R E Hester,R M Harrison
  • Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
  • Release : 2017-10-02
  • ISBN : 1788012518
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
Get Book

The long-term future for coal looks bleak. The recent UN climate change conference in Paris called for an end to the use of fossil fuels. However, coal remains one of the world’s most important sources of energy, fuelling more than 40% of electricity generation worldwide, with many developing nations relying almost wholly on coal-fuelled electricity. Coal has been the fastest growing energy source in recent years and is essential for many industrial activities, but the coal industry is hugely damaging for the environment. A major driver in climate change and causing around 40% of the world’s carbon dioxide emissions, coal fuel comes at a high environmental price. Furthermore, mining and air pollution kill thousands each year. A timely addition to the series, this book critically reviews the role of coal in the 21st century, examining energy needs, usage and health implications. With case studies and an examination of future developments and economics, this text provides an essential update on an environmental topic the world cannot ignore.

Applications of Advanced Green Materials


Applications of Advanced Green Materials
  • Author : Shakeel Ahmed
  • Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
  • Release : 2020-10-22
  • ISBN : 0128209380
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
Get Book

Applications of Advanced Green Materials provides a comprehensive and authoritative review on recent advancement in green materials in various applications. Each chapter is focused on a specific application of advanced green materials from packaging to sensor technology, biomedical to environmental applications, textile to catalysis to electronic shielding applications, supercapacitors, drug delivery, tissue engineering, bioelectronic, gas storage and separation, etc. This book also discusses life cycle assessment and circular economy of green materials and their future prospective. The book is unique with contributions from renowned scientists working on biopolymers and biocomposites, bioactive and biodegradable materials, composites, and metallic natural materials. This book is an essential resource for academicians, researchers, students and professionals interested in exploring potential of advanced green materials. Includes up to date information on applications of advanced green materials Each chapter is specifically discussing a particular application with examples Present a unified approach to discuss in detail about origin, synthesis and application of green materials

Torrefaction of Biomass for Energy Applications


Torrefaction of Biomass for Energy Applications
  • Author : Leonel JR Nunes,Joao Carlos De Oliveira Matias,Joao Paulo Da Silva Catalao
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2017-11-21
  • ISBN : 0128096977
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
Get Book

Torrefaction of Biomass for Energy Applications: From Fundamentals to Industrial Scale explores the processes, technology, end-use, and economics involved in torrefaction at the industrial scale for heat and power generation. Its authors combine their industry experience with their academic expertise to provide a thorough overview of the topic. Starting at feedstock pretreatment, followed by torrefaction processes, the book includes plant design and operation, safety aspects, and case studies focusing on the needs and challenges of the industrial scale. Commercially available technologies are examined and compared, and their economical evaluation and life cycle assessment are covered as well. Attention is also given to non-woody feedstock, alternative applications, derived fuels, recent advances, and expected future developments. For its practical approach, this book is ideal for professionals in the biomass industry, including those in heat and power generation. It is also a useful reference for researchers and graduate students in the area of biomass and biofuels, and for decision makers, policy makers, and analysts in the energy field. Compares efficiency and performance of different commercially available technologies from the practical aspects of daily operation in an industrial scale plant Presents a cost analysis of the production, logistics, and storage of torrefied biomass Includes case studies addressing challenges that may occur in the daily operation in an industrial scale plant Covers other associated technologies, the densification of torrefied biomass, and non-woody feedstock

Technologies for Converting Biomass to Useful Energy


Technologies for Converting Biomass to Useful Energy
  • Author : Erik Dahlquist
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2013-04-16
  • ISBN : 0203120264
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
Get Book

Officially, the use of biomass for energy meets only 10-13% of the total global energy demand of 140 000 TWh per year. Still, thirty years ago the official figure was zero, as only traded biomass was included. While the actual production of biomass is in the range of 270 000 TWh per year, most of this is not used for energy purposes, and mostly it

Bioenergy and Biofuels


Bioenergy and Biofuels
  • Author : Ozcan Konur
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2018-01-02
  • ISBN : 1351230689
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
Get Book

This book aims to inform readers about the recent developments in bioenergy and biofuels covering current issues from an interdisciplinary approach. It will also feature coverage of anticipated future trends related to each particular biofuel. Chapters will consist of original research presented by world class experts in their respective fields. A number of interdisciplinary areas will be incorporated such as Energy & Fuels, Biotechology, Genomics, Economics, Optimization, Chemical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Algae Science. Examples will relate to a matrix of biofuel and energy types such as bioethanol, biobutanol, and biomethane.

Sustainable Energy Systems From Primary to End Use


Sustainable Energy Systems  From Primary to End Use
  • Author : João Carlos de Oliveira Matias,Leonel Jorge Ribeiro Nunes,Radu Godina
  • Publisher : MDPI
  • Release : 2019-09-03
  • ISBN : 3039210963
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
Get Book

This book focuses on sustainable energy systems. While several innovative and alternative concepts are presented, the topics of energy policy, life cycle assessment, thermal energy, and renewable energy also play a major role. Models on various temporal and geographical scales are developed to understand the conditions of technical as well as organizational change. New methods of modeling, which can fulfil technical and physical boundary conditions and nevertheless consider economic environmental and social aspects, are also developed.

Gasification for Low grade Feedstock


Gasification for Low grade Feedstock
  • Author : Yongseung Yun
  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2018-07-11
  • ISBN : 1789232880
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
Get Book

Most coveted energy forms nowadays are gas in nature and electricity due to their environmental cleanness and convenience. Recently, gasification market trend is starting to switch to low-grade feedstock such as biomass, wastes, and low-rank coal that are still not properly utilized. In this sense, the most promising area of development in gasification field lies in low-grade feedstock that should be converted to more user-friendly gas or electricity form in utilization. This book tried to shed light on the works on gasification from many parts of the world and thus can feel the technology status and the areas of interest regarding gasification for low-grade feedstock.

Climate Intervention


Climate Intervention
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Ocean Studies Board,Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,Committee on Geoengineering Climate: Technical Evaluation and Discussion of Impacts
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release : 2015-06-17
  • ISBN : 0309305322
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
Get Book

The signals are everywhere that our planet is experiencing significant climate change. It is clear that we need to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases from our atmosphere if we want to avoid greatly increased risk of damage from climate change. Aggressively pursuing a program of emissions abatement or mitigation will show results over a timescale of many decades. How do we actively remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to make a bigger difference more quickly? As one of a two-book report, this volume of Climate Intervention discusses CDR, the carbon dioxide removal of greenhouse gas emissions from the atmosphere and sequestration of it in perpetuity. Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration introduces possible CDR approaches and then discusses them in depth. Land management practices, such as low-till agriculture, reforestation and afforestation, ocean iron fertilization, and land-and-ocean-based accelerated weathering, could amplify the rates of processes that are already occurring as part of the natural carbon cycle. Other CDR approaches, such as bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration, direct air capture and sequestration, and traditional carbon capture and sequestration, seek to capture CO2 from the atmosphere and dispose of it by pumping it underground at high pressure. This book looks at the pros and cons of these options and estimates possible rates of removal and total amounts that might be removed via these methods. With whatever portfolio of technologies the transition is achieved, eliminating the carbon dioxide emissions from the global energy and transportation systems will pose an enormous technical, economic, and social challenge that will likely take decades of concerted effort to achieve. Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration will help to better understand the potential cost and performance of CDR strategies to inform debate and decision making as we work to stabilize and reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.

Biomass as a Sustainable Energy Source for the Future


Biomass as a Sustainable Energy Source for the Future
  • Author : Wiebren de Jong,J. Ruud van Ommen
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2014-11-03
  • ISBN : 1118304918
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
Get Book

Focusing on the conversion of biomass into gas or liquid fuels the book covers physical pre-treatment technologies, thermal, chemical and biochemical conversion technologies • Details the latest biomass characterization techniques • Explains the biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes • Discusses the development of integrated biorefineries, which are similar to petroleum refineries in concept, covering such topics as reactor configurations and downstream processing • Describes how to mitigate the environmental risks when using biomass as fuel • Includes many problems, small projects, sample calculations and industrial application examples

Progressive Thermochemical Biorefining Technologies


Progressive Thermochemical Biorefining Technologies
  • Author : Sonil Nanda,Dai-Viet N. Vo
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2021-08-18
  • ISBN : 1000427358
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
Get Book

Considering the deleterious impacts of fossil fuels on the environmental and natural ecosystems, it has become imperative to make a paradigm shift toward renewable fuels, chemicals, and materials. The exhaustive everyday usage of fossil fuels and processed petrochemical products are the leading causes for the increase in greenhouse gas emissions, global warming, climate changes, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, pollution of air, water, and soil as well as for the accumulation of nonbiodegradable materials in the soil and oceans. On the contrary, biofuels, biochemicals, and biomaterials derived from renewable wastes such as nonedible plant biomass (e.g., agricultural and forestry biomass), energy crops, microalgae, municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, and other biogenic residues seem to be carbon neutral. Therefore, the global interest in biorefining technologies, especially thermochemical and biological conversion processes, is gaining momentum in academic and industrial perspectives. Progressive Thermochemical Biorefining Technologies offers all-inclusive coverage of the most crucial topics as follows: State-of-the-art information on the production and utilization of biofuels through thermochemical biorefining technologies Conversion of waste biomass through pyrolysis, liquefaction, torrefaction, carbonization, gasification, reforming, and other clean technologies Waste-to-energy/chemical generation Fuel upgrading technologies Techno-economic analysis and life-cycle assessment of biorefining processes Specifically designed to be instantly applicable, this volume serves as a reference book for undergraduate and graduate students, scientific investigators, and research scholars working in the areas relating to energy and fuels.

Renewable Fuel Standard


Renewable Fuel Standard
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Energy and Environmental Systems,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Committee on Economic and Environmental Impacts of Increasing Biofuels Production
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release : 2012-01-29
  • ISBN : 0309187516
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
Get Book

In the United States, we have come to depend on plentiful and inexpensive energy to support our economy and lifestyles. In recent years, many questions have been raised regarding the sustainability of our current pattern of high consumption of nonrenewable energy and its environmental consequences. Further, because the United States imports about 55 percent of the nation's consumption of crude oil, there are additional concerns about the security of supply. Hence, efforts are being made to find alternatives to our current pathway, including greater energy efficiency and use of energy sources that could lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions such as nuclear and renewable sources, including solar, wind, geothermal, and biofuels. The United States has a long history with biofuels and the nation is on a course charted to achieve a substantial increase in biofuels. Renewable Fuel Standard evaluates the economic and environmental consequences of increasing biofuels production as a result of Renewable Fuels Standard, as amended by EISA (RFS2). The report describes biofuels produced in 2010 and those projected to be produced and consumed by 2022, reviews model projections and other estimates of the relative impact on the prices of land, and discusses the potential environmental harm and benefits of biofuels production and the barriers to achieving the RFS2 consumption mandate. Policy makers, investors, leaders in the transportation sector, and others with concerns for the environment, economy, and energy security can rely on the recommendations provided in this report.

Biomass for Biofuels


Biomass for Biofuels
  • Author : Katarzyna Bulkowska,Zygmunt Mariusz Gusiatin,Ewa Klimiuk,Artur Pawlowski,Tomasz Pokoj
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2016-12-08
  • ISBN : 1351850091
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
Get Book

Biomass is a widely available resource, that can be characterized by its high production potential. Enabling the production of different types of biofuels, biomass can be used in both spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines. There is extensive knowledge of the biofuel production process, and technologies enabling the production of biofuels with high caloric value and better physicochemical properties are developed. The biggest barrier in the development of a biofuels market is not the lack of know-how, but economic and political aspects. Biomass for Biofuels presents technological aspects of biomass conversion into advanced biofuels. Also discussed are the influence of growing biofuels markets on the natural environment and social relations as well as economic aspects of acquisition of biomass and its processing into biofuels. In addition biomass characteristics are presented. A definition is provided, and its chemical composition and properties detailed. The focus is on lignocellulosic biomass, whose complex structure is a limiting factor for biofuels production via biological processes. For that reason, echanical, chemical and physicochemical methods that enable an increased availability for the microorganisms used for biomass conversion to biofuels are discussed.

Advances and Impacts of the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving


Advances and Impacts of the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving
  • Author : Sebastian Koziołek,Leonid Chechurin,Mikael Collan
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2018-11-29
  • ISBN : 3319965328
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
Get Book

This book offers a collection of cutting-edge research on the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). Introduced by Genrich Altshuller in 1956, TRIZ has since been used by engineers, inventors and creators as an essential structured innovation method at businesses and organizations around the globe. The chapters of this book showcase work by selected authors from the 'TRIZ Future' conferences, which are organized by the European TRIZ Association (ETRIA). The chapters reflect an international mix of new ideas on TRIZ and knowledge-based innovation, highlight recent advances in the TRIZ community, and provide examples of successful collaboration between industry and academia. The book first introduces the reader to recent methodological innovations, then provides an overview of established and new TRIZ tools, followed by a collection of case studies and examples of TRIZ implementation in various scientific and social contexts.

Biochar for Environmental Management


Biochar for Environmental Management
  • Author : Johannes Lehmann,Stephen Joseph
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2012-05-16
  • ISBN : 1136571213
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
Get Book

Biochar is the carbon-rich product when biomass (such as wood, manure or crop residues) is heated in a closed container with little or no available air. It can be used to improve agriculture and the environment in several ways, and its stability in soil and superior nutrient-retention properties make it an ideal soil amendment to increase crop yields. In addition to this, biochar sequestration, in combination with sustainable biomass production, can be carbon-negative and therefore used to actively remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, with major implications for mitigation of climate change. Biochar production can also be combined with bioenergy production through the use of the gases that are given off in the pyrolysis process. This book is the first to synthesize the expanding research literature on this topic. The book's interdisciplinary approach, which covers engineering, environmental sciences, agricultural sciences, economics and policy, is a vital tool at this stage of biochar technology development. This comprehensive overview of current knowledge will be of interest to advanced students, researchers and professionals in a wide range of disciplines.

Pyrolysis of Biomass


Pyrolysis of Biomass
  • Author : Shurong Wang,Zhongyang Luo
  • Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
  • Release : 2017-01-01
  • ISBN : 311036963X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
Get Book

With the development of societies fossil energy is no longer the only energy resource, and increasing attention had been paid to alternative energy. Biomass is considered to be one of the alternatives due to efficiency and low cost. This book presents biomass pyrolysis behavior for three main components: Cellulose, Hemicellulose and Lignin, and discusses the influence of mineral salts , zeolite catalysts and metal oxide on their pyrolysis.

Handbook of Petrochemical Processes


Handbook of Petrochemical Processes
  • Author : James G. Speight
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2019-06-13
  • ISBN : 0429531125
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
Get Book

The petrochemical industry is a scientific and engineering field that encompasses the production of a wide range of chemicals and polymers. The purpose of this book is not only to provide a follow-on to form the later chapters of the highly successful Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum 5th Edition but also provides a simplified approach to a very diverse chemical subject dealing with the chemistry and technology of various petroleum and petrochemical process. Following from the introductory chapters, this book provides the readers with a valuable source of information containing insights into petrochemical reactions and products, process technology, and polymer synthesis. Provides readers with a valuable source of information containing insights into petrochemical reactions and products, process technology, and polymer synthesis Introduces the reader to the various petrochemical intermediates are generally produced by chemical conversion of primary petrochemicals to form more complicated derivative products The reactions and processes involved in transforming petroleum-based hydrocarbons into the chemicals that form the basis of the multi-billion dollar petrochemical industry are reviewed and described The book includes information on new process developments for the production of raw materials and intermediates for petrochemicals Includes a description of the origin of the raw materials for the petrochemicals industry – including an overview of the coal chemicals industry